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Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

幫我翻譯 不要用翻譯機 急 ( 10點 )

A Brief History of the Lute

Part 2

By 1500 the first written records confirm the existence of several families making lutes as a trade in and around Füssen in the Lech valley. Most of the famous names of 16th and 17th century lutemaking seem to have come originally from around this small area of Southern Germany. By 1562 the Füssen makers were sufficiently well established to set up as a guild with elaborate regulations which have survived.(see Bletschacher, 1978, and Layer, 1978) A careful reading of these regulations reveals how much they were predicated on the idea of export. They also show an organised tendency to keep the trade within individual families, which resulted in much inter-marriage. This was a powerful force for continuity which clearly lasted for centuries. However the number of masters who could set up workshop in the town was limited to 20, so there was a built-in pressure for emigration. It was also just this area which was devastated first by the Peasants war of 1525, the Schmalkald war and finally by the Thirty Years War which killed more than half the population of central Europe. Small wonder then that lutemakers, who already had international connections, moved out in such numbers.

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  • 1 decade ago
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    琵琶的簡短歷史

    第二部份

    以1500,第一個書寫記錄確認幾家庭的存在使作為和在在色鬼山谷內的Fussen周遭的一的貿易的琵琶。 大多數這著名名字16 和17 lutemaking 世紀好像從大約這幾次小地區南德國的最初來。 到1562年Fussen 製造者被足夠很好地建立用已經倖存的精心製作的規章成為一個行會。 (看見Bletschacher,1978,和層,1978)這些規章揭示他們被在退場門的想法上斷定多少的一詳細看到。 他們也顯示一種組織的在個別的家庭內保存貿易的趨勢,這導致很多結婚之間。 這是幾個世紀以來清楚持續的連續性的一種強有力的力量。 但是在鎮能建立工場的主人的數量局限于20,因此用于移民出境有內部壓力。 這也是僅僅這個地區, 被首先由1525,Schmalkald戰爭的農民戰爭和最後透過殺死中歐的超過一半的人口的30 年戰爭破壞。 lutemakers,已經有國際聯繫,搬出在這樣的數目裡的然后的小的奇跡。

    Source(s): 我+Dr.eye
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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    好個翻譯機

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    中古世紀近親通婚以維持權力的東西?嘖,不是念本科的只看的懂這麼多。

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