bibiboo asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago

請問有誰嘹解什麼是Audio-lingualism??20點

請問有誰瞭解Audio-lingualism(耳聽口語學派)的詳細資料或意思???謝謝

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  • bc
    Lv 7
    2 decades ago
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    THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD 聽說教學法 (ALM)

    歷史背景與淵源

    第二次世界大戰對美國境內的語言教育有著極大的影響。為了培養大批具有翻譯、解讀L2密碼的專業人才,美國政府於1942年成立了”Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP)”。隔年,美國55所大專院校也加入了這個訓練外語人才行列。之後,受到1957年蘇聯第一枚衛星發射成功的刺激,美國更是深感外語之重要,於是在1958年通過了國防教育條款(The National Defence Education Act),提撥經費以供研究語言、改進語言教材,以及鼓勵教師進修之用。語言教育專家於是結合了軍方培育外語人才的課程、結構派語言學理論、行為心理學和口語-聽力訓練,共同發展出所謂的ALM教學法。

    教學觀

    傳統上,研究語言的重心都著重在心理學與邏輯層面的討論,但在達爾文〝物種原理〞等實證主義的影響下,語言學家們不再緊緊擁抱被視為正統/貴族的拉丁文,而開始對各國語言之語音、聲韻、構詞、句法等結構進行田野調查與分析研究,興起了所謂的語言學結構學派(structuralism)的風潮。在結構學派的理論中, 〝語言 〞被視為一組在聲韻、構詞、句法上彼此關連,又能用來傳情達意的結構體。在這個結構體中,每個組成份子之間都有直線性的關連,並受到上一層級語言結構的規範。因此,根據結構學派的觀點,學習語言就是去學習標的語之組成結構及其規則。

    當然,ALM的興起除了大受結構學派的影響之外,行為心理學(behavioral psychology)也是其理論根基之一。根據行為心理學的研究,人類學習的模式(包括學習語言在內)是由下列三個元素所形成:刺激(stimulus; L2);反應 (response; 學生對L2的反應和表現 );強化 (reinforcement;老師或同學的稱讚,或使用L2的自信心)。換言之,要學好一種語言,就是要去學習一整套正確合宜的刺激—反應語言模式。

    綜合結構學派與行為心理學對語言教學的影響,可以看出ALM鮮明的教學理念:(1) 學習L2如同培養一套語言習慣 — 只要不斷地做口語句型練習、記誦正確的對話方式,就可以減少錯誤的發生;(2)為使學習兼具效果與效率,L2應該在課堂中先以口語方式來呈現,並加強學生在聽和說方面的訓練 — 唯有在聽 / 說 方面熟練之後,才能再追加讀、寫部分的練習。也就是說,ALM是聽說教學先於讀寫教學;它較重視結構(form)與形式(structure)如時態、語法、句型結構,卻較不重視意義(meaning);(3)做L1 / L2的遠比演繹分析性的解釋說明對學生更有益處。此外,多做機對照(analogy)和歸納(generalization)械式的練習(drills)對學生的歸納能力有很大的幫助。(4)字彙和句型的教學必須在L2的文化情境當中。

    教材教法

    一、 教學目標

    近期的目標旨在加強聽力、訓練正確的發音、認識發音符號。長期目標則是使學生能流利地使用L2。

    二、 課程安排

    ALM的課程編排非常有結構性,因為透過L1與L2的對比分析研究,課程的進度是由聲韻(如發音、辨音)、構詞乃至於句法等循序漸進之。

    三、 教學活動與學習型態

    對話(dialogues)與機械式的練習(drills)是ALM最常見的教學活動。對話可以為L2中的生字或句型提供切合的情境,教師亦此來糾正學生的發音、重音、語調或節奏。對話中出現的重要句型通常會再獨立抽出,化為各樣的練習題。學生的責任就是覆誦,然後記熟。以下ALM最常見的練習題型 (國小英語師資訓練手冊,p. 11-15,師德):

    1. 齊聲練習(Choral Drill): 全班或全組一起齊聲覆誦

    T: I can swim.

    Ss: I can swim.

    T: I can’t swim.

    Ss: I can’t swim.

    2. 個別練習(Individual Drill):學生個別練習。人數不多時,老師可以帶著每一位學生單獨唸:若班級人數過多時,則只抽點部分學生單獨練習,稱為”Spot Checking”

    T: What is your name?

    S1: My name is Jenny.

    T: What is your name?

    S1: My name is Paul.

    3. 連鎖練習(Chain Drill):全班形成一條鍊子般,老師問A學生,A 學生答完後問B學生,B 學生答完後問C 學生,依此類推。

    T: How are you? (面向S1)

    S1: I’m fine. How are you? (面向S2)

    S2: I’m fine. How are you? (面向S3)

    S3: I’m fine. How are you?

    4. 逆向組句練習(Backward Build-Up Drill):遇到困難的句子、將句子 分成幾個部分,學生跟著教師由句尾開始學唸,然後往前加字,直到唸出整個句子。

    T: a coin?

    Ss: a coin?

    T: have a coin?

    Ss: have a coin?

    T: Do you have a coin?

    Ss: Do you have a coin?

    5. 覆述練習(repetition Drill): 教師唸,學生跟著讀。覆述練習可以是齊聲練習(Choral Drill),也可以是個別練習(Individual Drill)。

    T: I am going to school.

    Ss: I am going to school.

    T: I am going to the supermarket.

    Ss: I am going to the supermarket.

    6. 轉換練習(Transformation Drill): 學生按照提示練習各種肯定、否定、疑問、單複數句型的互換。

    T: He knows my address. (doesn't)

    Ss: He doesn’t know my address.

    T: He knows my address. (Yes/No Question)

    Ss: Did he know my address?

    7. 代換練習(Substitution Drill):教師念句型,並提示:學生利用提示來代換造新句。

    T: I bought a ticket. (tickets)

    Ss: I bought a ticket.

    8. 重述練習(Restatement Drill):學生根據教師的提示,造問句問同學。

    T: Ask her how old she is.

    Ss: How old are you?

    9. 完句練習(Completion Drill):老師說句子前半段,讓學生完成後半句,使句子成唯一完整句。

    T: I will go my way and you…

    S: I will go my way and you may go yours.

    10. 擴展練習(Expansion Drill):增加字使一個句子變長。老師給句子及提示學生找出適當的位置將提示插入句子 中。

    T: I know him. (very well)

    S: I know him very well.

    T: (did)

    S: I did know him very well.

    11. 縮短練習(Contraction Drill):用一自來代表一個片語或一串字,使句子縮短。

    T: He will put the book on the table. (there)

    Ss: He will put the book there.

    T: He will put the book there. (it)

    Ss: He will put it there.

    12.合句練習(Integration Drill);將兩個句子用適當的連接詞、子句或片語合為一句。

    T: They must be honest. This is important.

    Ss: It is important that they must be honest.

    13.重建句子練習(Restoration Drill):教師給幾個字當提示,學生依文法需自行加自造句。

    T: students/ waiting/ bus

    Ss: The students are waiting for bus.

    14. 問答練習(Question-and-Answer Drill):訓練學生能毫不遲疑快速地回答問題。

    T: What time is it?

    Ss: It’s two o’clock.

    15. 角色扮演(Role Play):將對話以不同的角色分組演示出來,鼓勵學生表現出適當的情感及表情。

    S1: May I have an ice cream cone, please?

    S2: OK. Here you are.

    S1: Thank you very much.

    S2: You’re welcome.

    接下來,將以一教學實例來示範(國小英語師資訓練手冊,p. 16-17,師德):

    步驟一 老師帶大家廿一段對話:

    Peter: what color do you like?

    Annie: I like red. How about you? What color do you like?

    Peter: I like blue.

    老師利用輔助教具,協助學生明白對話之意。

    步驟二 接著學生齊唸分組唸,再角色扮演Peter與Annie。老師特別注意學生的發音,一有錯誤,立刻糾正。

    步驟三 老師教本課句型: I like 顏色。 即相關單字:pink, orange, green

    步驟四 學生做代換練習(substitution drill),加強句型。

    T: red. S: I like red.

    T: pink. S: I like pink.

    T: orange. S: I like orange.

    四、 教師與學生的角色

    ALM是以教師為主導的教學模式。因為教師負責示範L2、控制學生學習的方向與進度、糾正學生所犯的錯誤,並提供各樣各式的練習題讓學生專注學習。學生則只需對練習題作適當的回應即可,因為學生並不被鼓勵主動發言,以避免〝多說多錯〞的情況。

    結論與反思

    ALM在1960年代達到全盛時期,之後便開始衰退,因為教師發現學生在經過

    無數枯燥嚴肅的機械式練習後,並不能有效勝任課堂外實際的口語溝通。更重要的是,麻省理工學院語言學家瓊姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)提出了足以駁斥結構學派和行為心理學派的學習觀點:變形語法(transformational grammar)和語言能力(linguistic competence)。變形語法中強調,語言並不只是一個層級明顯的複合結構,而是由一更抽象複雜的規則來規範。這個規範性的變形語法概念是人與生俱來認知能力的一部份。此外,瓊姆斯基認為,語言學習並不只是經由背誦、模仿而僵化養成的語言習慣。相反的,人類並不像是學說話的鸚鵡,而是經由生活經驗和語言能力所學習得來。這兩個理念嚴重地削弱了ALM的魅力,從此以後語言教學的領域陷入了百家理論爭鳴的世界。

    如今,在即將邁入21世紀的年代裡,ALM雖已不再流行,但其訓練學生聽說的視聽語言教室設備仍在世界地的學校和語言機構繼續使用(甚至擴充升級中),因為能讓學生接受視、聽的刺激來接觸第一手L2的機會非常珍貴,而錄音重播設備也確實可使學生適時地修正自己的語調、發音、用字及節奏。至於,若想期望在百萬視聽設備中蹲個幾百小時,苦苦對著機器練習上述所列各式各樣的練習題後就能練就一口流利L2、達成各項語言任務,不過是一些對學習語言抱持太過天真單純的夢想罷了。

    但話又說回來,ALM常做的機械式練習題在台灣的英文部訂教科書和參考書中不也〝似曾相似〞?只不過,ALM中起碼會要求學生要先開口練習這些句子,但台灣的英語教育甚至沒有足夠的時間讓學生開口練習,而是直接由老師帶學生在黑板上套句型的〝公式〞來〝解題〞。這樣的學習風氣,讓台灣的學生一聽到〝英文〞,集體的反應竟然是拿起紙筆準備考試或者做習題、背課文,絲毫沒有豎起耳朵、磨牙利齒準備開口說話的喜悅。筆者認為,人類〝內鍵〞的認知系統中既然有如瓊姆斯基所說巧妙複雜的語言能力,那麼教師和教育當局若在介紹L2後,還願意〝恩賜〞一點時間,設計互動式的語言活動給學生去體會、把玩、實驗 L2,和它〝培養感情〞,那麼台灣的英語教育才不會永遠困在文法、發音的死胡同中。

    WHAT IS AUDIOLINGUALISM?

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    There seems to be a widely held perception amongst language teachers that methods and approaches have finite historical boundaries - that the Grammar-Translation approach is dead, for example. Similarly, audiolingualism was in vogue in the 1960s but died out in the 70s after Chomsky’s famous attack on behaviourism in language learning.

    In this context, it is worth considering for a moment what goes on in the typical language learning classroom. Do you ever ask your students to repeat phrases or whole sentences, for example? Do you drill the pronunciation and intonation of utterances? Do you ever use drills? What about choral drilling? Question and answer? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, then, consciously or unconsciously, you are using techniques that are features of the audiolingual approach.

    This approach has its roots in the USA during World War II, when there was a pressing need to train key personnel quickly and effectively in foreign language skills. The results of the Army Specialized Training Program are generally regarded to have been very successful, with the caveat that the learners were in small groups and were highly motivated, which undoubtedly contributed to the success of the approach.

    The approach was theoretically underpinned by structural linguistics, a movement in linguistics that focused on the phonemic, morphological and syntactic systems underlying the grammar of a given language, rather than according to traditional categories of Latin grammar. As such, it was held that learning a language involved mastering the building blocks of the language and learning the rules by which these basic elements are combined from the level of sound to the level of sentence. The audiolingual approach was also based on the behaviourist theory of learning, which held that language, like other aspects of human activity, is a form of behaviour.

    In the behaviourist view, language is elicited by a stimulus and that stimulus then triggers a response. The response in turn then produces some kind of reinforcement, which, if positive, encourages the repetition of the response in the future or, if negative, its suppression. When transposed to the classroom, this gives us the classic pattern drill- Model: She went to the cinema yesterday. Stimulus; Theatre. Response: She went to the theatre yesterday. Reinforcement: Good! In its purest form audiolingualism aims to promote mechanical habit-formation through repetition of basic patterns. Accurate manipulation of structure leads to eventual fluency. Spoken language comes before written language. Dialogues and drill are central to the approach. Accurate pronunciation and control of structure are paramount.

    While some of this might seem amusingly rigid in these enlightened times, it is worth reflecting on actual classroom practice and noticing when activities occur that can be said to have their basis in the audiolingual approach. Most teachers will at some point require learners to repeat examples of grammatical structures in context with a number of aims in mind: stress, rhythm, intonation, "consolidating the structure", enabling learners to use the structure accurately through repetition, etc. Question and answer in open class or closed pairs to practise a particular form can also be argued to have its basis in the audiolingual approach, as can, without doubt, any kind of drill.

    Although the audiolingual approach in its purest form has many weaknesses (notably the difficulty of transferring learnt patterns to real communication), to dismiss the audiolingual approach as an outmoded method of the 1960s is to ignore the reality of current classroom practice which is based on more than 2000 years of collective wisdom.

    http://www.onestopenglish.com/News/Magazine/Archiv...

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