英譯中 (deep/surface approach)
And the second point, which follows from the first, is that students take different approaches to learning; or in other words, students learn in different ways.
It's possible to divide these different approaches into two main types: the deep approach to learning and, by contrast, the surface approach to learning.
Let's look first at the deep approach. Students who take a deep approach aim to understand and use the subject.
They also value the subject: they think it's important and, usually, enjoyable. What are the characteristics of these learners?
Finally, they tend to read and study more than the course actually requires them to. So, that's the deep approach.
Students who take a surface approach on the other hand, have the main aim of passing an exam or getting a qualification.
They are not so interested in the subject itself or in really understanding it.
Of course, teachers generally think that most students take this approach.
Second, they take a narrow view and concentrate on detail, rather than on the 'big picture.
And they tend to do only what the course requires them to do and no more; finally, they are motivated by fear of failure—they are afraid to fail the exam.