如果大大會問這個問題﹐大概直接看英文解說比較合適PERFORMATIVE運作效能... though it may seem, there are certain things one can do just by saying what one is doing. This is possible if one uses a verb that names the very sort of act one is performing. Thus one can thank someone by saying 'Thank you', fire someone by saying 'You're fired', and apologize by saying 'I apologize'. These are examples of 'explicit performative utterances', statements in form but not in fact. Or so thought their discoverer, J. L. Austin, who contrasted them with 'constatives'. Their distinctive self-referential character might suggest that their force requires special explanation, but it is arguable that performativity can be explained by the general theory of speech acts. 這裡有一篇很精彩的討論﹕[Austin的“performative”與言說者的行... ”，乃至是“theories of the performance”卻不是一般所謂的「行為科學」（behavioral science），也與這類科學的觀點無必然關連。]http://sts.nthu... ACTS言辭行動 Making a statement may be the paradigmatic use of language, but there are all sorts of other things we can do with words. We can make requests, ask questions, give orders, make promises, give thanks, offer apologies, and so on. Moreover, almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience. 言辭行動的類型可分以下幾種（Habermas，1976：50-58）:規約性的言... speech acts）包括有命令、訓誡、禁止、拒絕、承諾、同意、推薦、建議、准許等等。一如其... speech acts）表達了說話者的希望、感覺與意向，這種「自我揭示」舉陳了對「真誠」（tr... speech acts）中明白舉陳對真實的宣稱、認定真實。說話的人發聲為言，在其中，根據說話者...
· 1 decade ago