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VIOLETA asked in 科學生物學 · 2 decades ago

演化論的迷思 ~達爾文 V.S 拉馬克

我想知道達爾文 DARWIN 和拉馬克LAMARCK 的演化學說有何異同?

我知道達爾文主張物競天擇 那拉馬克呢?

兩者學說有相同的地方嗎? 差異又有哪些呢?

2 Answers

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  • 2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    相同的地方:

    從前,西方人相信~上帝創造萬物,所以,物種數目和型態是固定的,

    達爾文&拉馬克認為物種會爲了適應環境而漸漸變化,而誕生新物種...(漸變說)

    差異:

    拉馬克相信物種在環境改變時會漸漸改變自己去適應環境,而"改變會傳承給下一代",代代累積改變而形成新物種;如:長頸鹿的脖子是因為要吃到樹頂的嫩葉,一直伸長而形成的(沒人會被環境篩除...).

    達爾文認為物種之間因為有小小差異,因為天擇而篩選出最適合環境的物種;如:原本有較長脖子和較短脖子的長頸鹿,短脖子因無法吃到葉子而競爭不過長脖子的物種,在天擇下被篩除,而脖子越長的就越佔優勢,越容易活下來,生出和自己一樣的子代...(物競天擇,適者生存)

    ...........................................................................................................................................

    What Lamarck Believed

    Lamarck is best known for his Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics, first presented in 1801 (Darwin's first book dealing with natural selection was published in 1859): If an organism changes during life in order to adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to its offspring. He said that change is made by what the organisms want or need. For example, Lamarck believed that elephants all used to have short trunks. When there was no food or water that they could reach with their short trunks, they stretched their trunks to reach the water and branches, and their offspring inherited long trunks. Lamarck also said that body parts that are not being used, such as the human appendix and little toes are gradually disappearing. Eventually, people will be born without these parts. Lamarck also believed that evolution happens according to a predetermined plan and that the results have already been decided.

    <http://necsi.org/projects/evolution/lamarck/lamarc...

    What Darwin Believed

    Darwin believed that the desires of animals have nothing to do with how they evolve, and that changes in an organism during its life do not affect the evolution of the species. He said that organisms, even of the same species, are all different and that those which happen to have variations that help them to survive in their environments survive and have more offspring. The offspring are born with their parents' helpful traits, and as they reproduce, individuals with that trait make up more of the population. Other indeviduals, that are not so well adapted, die off. Most elephants used to have short trunks, but some had longer trunks. When there was no food or water that they could reach with their short trunks, the ones with short trunks died off, and the ones with long trunks survived and reproduced. Eventually, all of the elephants had long trunks. Darwin also believed that evolution does not happen according to any sort of plan.

    <http://necsi.org/projects/evolution/lamarck/darwin...

    Why We Believe Darwin

    Darwin's theory has been supported by a lot of evidence. Lamarck's Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics has been disproved. This was done in two major ways. The first is by experiment. We have seen through many real examples and observations that changes that occur in an animal during life are not passed on to the animal's offspring. If a dog's ears are cropped short, its puppies are still born with long ears. If someone exercises every day, runs marathons, eats well, and is generally very healthy, the fitness is not passed on and the person's children still have to work just as hard to get that fit and healthy. These and other examples show that Lamarck's theory does not explain how life formed and became the way it is.

    The other way that Lamarck's theory has been proven wrong is the study of genetics. Darwin knew that traits are passed on, but he never understood how they are passed on. During the time when Darwin's first book first came out, Gregor Mendel, who discovered genetics, was just starting his experiments. However, now we know a lot more about genetics, and we know that the only way for traits to be passed on is through genes, and that genes can not be affected by the outside world. The only thing that can be affected is which gene sets there are in a population, and this is determined by which individuals die and which ones live. This is the other way that we have learned that the fruits of an animal's efforts can not be inherited by its offspring.

    <http://necsi.org/projects/evolution/lamarck/webeli...

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago

    拉馬克提出"用進廢退說"

    1809年拉馬克(Lamark, 1744-1829)發表了自己的進化觀點,此年達爾文出生。拉馬克把現代種和化石比較後,他可以了解出現的幾個世系,且每個都是依時間先後順序的化石而逐漸演化成現代種,拉馬克也相信在地底的微生物是自無生命的物質持續發生的。

    拉馬克認為演化的趨向是愈來愈複雜的,而且似乎將其視為完美無缺。對於種之適應,在拉馬克時代合併了兩個思想,第一為用進廢退,此思想是指身體常用的部分會變得更大更強壯,當這些部分不用時則變惡化;第二為遺傳取得的特質,在此遺傳之觀念上,在生存時,生物可透過子代獲得變異。

    後來魏斯曼的實驗證明這些取得的特質不能藉子代的配子改變基因遺傳,之所以拉馬克的演化論被現代嘲笑,即是因為由遺傳取得特質的假設是錯的;但是他敢違背當時的主流看法,提出物種會隨時間而漸變的說法,也算得上是了不起的演化理論開拓者。

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