victor asked in 科學生物學 · 2 decades ago

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process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. Fermentation is achieved by somewhat different chemical sequences in different species of organisms. Two closely related paths of fermentation predominate for glucose. When muscle tissue receives sufficient oxygen supply, it fully metabolizes its fuel glucose to water and carbon dioxide. However, at times of strenuous activity, muscle tissue uses oxygen faster than the blood can supply it. During this anaerobic condition, the six-carbon glucose molecule is only partly broken down to two molecules of the three-carbon sugar called lactic acid . This process, called lactic acid fermentation, also occurs in many microorganisms and in the cells of most higher animals. In alcoholic fermentation, such as occurs in brewer's yeast and some bacteria, the production of lactic acid is bypassed, and the glucose molecule is degraded to two molecules of the two-carbon alcohol , ethanol, and to two molecules of carbon dioxide. Many of the enzymes of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation are identical to the enzymes that bring about the metabolic conversion known as glycolysis . Alcoholic fermentation is a process that was known to antiquity. Before 2000 BC the Egyptians apparently knew that crushed fruits stored in a warm place would produce a substance with a pleasant intoxicating power. By 1500 BC the production of beer from germinating cereals (malt) and the preparation of wines from crushed grapes were established arts in most of the Middle East. Aristotle believed that grape juice was an infantile form of wine and that fermentation was, therefore, the maturation of the grape extract. Interest in the process of fermentation has continued through the ages, and much of modern biochemistry, especially enzyme studies, has emerged directly from early studies on the fermentation process. One of the earliest laboratories established for the study of biological chemistry was that founded in Copenhagen in 1875 and financed by the brewing family of Jacob Christian Jacobsen.

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
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    活細胞能獲得能量通過葡萄糖和其它簡單的糖分子故障沒有要求氧氣的過程。發酵由有些不同的化工序列達到用有機體的不同的種類。發酵二個緊密地相關的道路佔優勢為葡萄糖。當肌肉組織接受充足的氧氣供應, 它充分地代謝它的燃料葡萄糖澆灌和二氧化碳。但是, 時常吃力活動, 肌肉組織比血液可能供應它快速地使用氧氣。在這個絕氧情況期間, 六碳葡萄糖分子部分只被劃分對三碳糖的二個分子叫做乳酸。這個過程, 叫做乳酸發酵, 並且發生在許多微生物和在多數更高的動物細胞。在酒精發酵, 譬如發生在釀酒商的酵母和一些細菌, 乳酸的生產被繞過, 並且葡萄糖分子被貶低對二碳酒精的二個分子, 對氨基苯甲酸二, 和對二氧化碳二個分子。許多乳酸和酒客發酵酵素與達到新陳代謝的轉換以醣解作用著名的酵素是相同的。酒精發酵是為人所知對上古的過程。在2000 年之前埃及人明顯地BC 知道, 被擊碎的果子被存放在一個溫暖的地方會生產一種物質以宜人的陶醉的力量。在1500 年以前BC 啤酒的生產從發芽穀物(麥芽) 並且酒的準備從被擊碎的葡萄是建立的藝術在大多數中東。Aristotle 相信, 葡萄汁是酒的一個嬰兒形式並且發酵是, 因此, 葡萄萃取物的成熟性。興趣在發酵過程中繼續了通過年齡, 並且現代生化, 特別是酵素研究, 直接地從關於發酵工藝的早期的研究湧現了。1875 年最早期的實驗室的當中一個為生物化學的研究建立是那建立在哥本哈根和由Jacob 基督徒提供經費Jacobsen 釀造的家庭。

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