Anonymous asked in 教育與參考出國留學 · 2 decades ago






6 Answers

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    To cite a direct quotationWrite the text word for word and place inverted commas at the beginning and end of the quote. The author, date and page number must be included."Australia is a settler society" (Hudson & Bolton 1997, p. 9).To cite a quotation or idea from an author who attributes it to another sourceYou must acknowledge both sources in your text:Graham Gibbs, in his 1981 study into student learning wrote that "because students are aware of their tutor's mastery of the subject matter, it is quite common for them to assume that their reader has no needs at all" (Gibbs 1981, p.39, cited in Bowden 1985, p.35).To reference the overall content of a workYou do not need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to:Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major cities... Citing a journalIf the page number is required, as it is for paraphrasing and direct quoting:(Entwistle 1977, p.23)If you are citing an idea only:(Entwistle 1977) To refer to more than one workSeparate the references either with a semicolon or the word and (Entwistle 1977; Haddon 1969)or :Entwistle (1977) and Haddon (1969) both demonstrated that... To cite more than one author(Sontag & Paglia 1987)or:Sontag and Paglia (1987) assert that . . .  To cite more than three authorsUse the surname of the first author and et al. (‘and others’):Brown et al. (1987) argued that... or:(Brown et al. 1987) To cite more than one work by the same authorArrange citations in chronological order:(Smith 1981, 1984, 1985) To cite authors with the same surname who have published in the same yearUse their initials to indicate different people:The theory was first developed early this century (Smith, A K 1979) but later many of its elements were refuted (Smith J A 1979). To cite an author who published more than one work in the same yearAttach an a, b, c, d etc. after the year:Dawkins (1972a, 1972b) completed a number of studies on... To cite from newspapersIf there is no author, list the name of the newspaper, the date, year and page number:(Sydney Morning Herald 7 March 1994, p.8)If there is an author, cite as you would for a journal article:(Peters 2000) To quote from a privately obtained interview or other personal communicationinclude the abbreviation 'pers. comm.' in your reference:(Daly, B. 1994, pers. comm., 7 Aug.) To cite a CD-ROMInclude the full title and year of publication:(Microsoft Encarta, 1995) To cite a document within a websiteIn-text citations usually require page numbers, but Internet documents rarely contain them. Information should include author name(s) (the person or the organisation responsible for the site) and the date created/ revised:(Winston, J 1999)or:(United Nations 1999)If the author’s name is unknown, cite the website URL ( To cite a film, video, and television or radio programInclude the full title and year of release:(Three Colours Red, 1995)

    Source(s): Harvard reference system
  • Anonymous
    7 years ago








  • Pat
    Lv 6
    2 decades ago


  • 2 decades ago

    Fei說的對, 你要依你的科系或教授的規定來用不一樣的reference格式, 用錯是不給分的~_~

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  • Fei
    Lv 6
    2 decades ago


  • 2 decades ago

    見議你最好的方法是看paper學比較快, paper後都有references 只要跟著寫就對了


    如: Giraldez AJ, Cinalli RM, Glasner ME, Enright AJ, Thomson MJ, Baskerville S, Hammond SM, Bartel DP, Schier AF. 2005. MicroRNAs regulate brain morphogenesis in zebrafish. Science. 308: 833-838

    一般都是先寫作者, paper發表年份, paper title, journal, 頁數

    另外要在論文中引用的話, 就在引用後面 ( ) 寫paper第一作者名字及paper發表年份

    如引用上面的paper 就要寫 (Giraldez et al, 2005)

    et al是指說有多於2位作者

    Source(s): 被駡後的經驗
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