翻成英文(急用)

腔棘魚

學名:Latimeria chalumnae

俗名:Coelacanths

綽號海中之王(the king of the sea)的腔棘魚,最近引起了許多生物學家投入探討。一開始科學家以為牠們已經滅絕了;後來一個科學家在南非發現了一個樣本,但並沒有保存下來;陸陸續續的有人發現腔棘魚並作成標本;直到最近一群科學家在科摩洛島外海裡發現兩隻腔棘魚,但科學家認為那兩隻不是主要魚群,但還是很高興有了如此重要的發現。

著名的活化石魚;腔棘魚一直以來都被認為是僅存在化石中的動物,牠在泥盆紀至侏儸紀(三億七千萬年前到一億五千萬年前)的這一段時間很普遍,但被認為在白堊紀時就滅絕光了。1939年時,一個科學家在南非海岸發現了一個樣本,但他並沒有將魚保存下來,魚最後被分解了。科學家並不知道,在科莫洛這地方的漁民經常在他們的漁獲中發現腔棘魚。因為這種魚不能吃而沒有價值,漁民抓到這種魚都是把牠丟棄。島上的居民對於腔棘魚帶來的興奮無動於衷,但很高興這種他們稱為Kombessa的魚變成珍貴的魚。

腔棘魚為啥麼這麼的受到大家的注意,就我個人的了解,歸類於下列幾點:

.最為著名的魚類活化石,被認為早在七千萬年前就該滅絕了的生物,後來居然發現了活體。

.可能是魚類近化成兩棲類中間重要的一環,就像中國獵龍可能是恐龍進化成鳥類中,非常重要的一環那般。

.雖然已經發現了存活的腔棘魚,不過數量少到已快變成真化石了。

.腔棘魚與七千萬年前的變化不大,是怎樣的條件讓腔棘魚有本事與其他更能適應環境的魚一起存活了下來。

附註:

科摩羅群島的海洋,在離岸100公尺處,有許多地方水深超過1000公尺,可是在靠近海岸陽光的充足的地方,有一片狹窄但是很發達的珊瑚礁(裙礁)。從珊瑚礁的邊緣往下看,可以看到熔岩性的黑岩石,和由暗色的沙形成的陡坡,一質延伸到深海,熔岩性的岩石處處形成水中洞穴。在更深的海底中,到處可見單調的岩石和帶有波紋的沙坡漸漸隱去,及腔腸動物中的鞭海柳珊瑚和黑色的魚。從水深200到500公尺的附近,捕上來的魚有鯖帶魚和薔薇帶鰆等。這些與腔棘魚一起生活在深海的魚,都有一對在弱光下也看見的見的大眼睛,合一咬住就不放的尖銳齒列;在黑漆漆的海中,這些魚可胼和腔棘魚競相爭食。

習性

腔棘魚是夜行性的

 

腔棘魚白天躲在水深170~230公尺的洞窟中靜止不動,日落後,三三兩兩地游出往深處移動,捕捉獵物。腔棘魚是用其尖銳的牙齒緊緊咬著獵物,然後一口氣吞下,它們只會捕捉來到口部正前方的獵物,這是反射性的行為。

像這樣節約能源只依賴偶然性的狩獵方式成功的機率很少,所以襲擊必需既敏捷又準確,故其頭部先端的吻部器官能感知獵物在游泳時所發出的微弱電場,然後測定獵物的位置

腔棘魚正在逐年減少中

 

腔棘魚的偶然發現,科學家的發表讓它一舉成名,腔棘魚是有限的,而人類的野心無窮,濫捕與不經意的傷害,使數目極快的減少。拯救這些深海中的活化石,需要一筆龐大的經費,世界各地的科學家,正在籌措,我們期盼這天能早日到來。

螞蟻因為身體小,不會突破水的表面張力,因此可以在水面漂浮很長一段時間,到身體完全失溼透前不會下沉,如果是單一螞蟻多半是因為水的流動將它帶到隔離在水中的物體上,但是大群螞蟻只要犧牲部分螞蟻,也可以使用蟻海戰術搭起蟻體浮橋通過水面到達想要的目的地。

下雨的時候,工蟻們會圍繞形成球狀,稱為"蟻球",將蟻后圍在中央保護,

並且分泌油脂等物質讓蟻球不會被水沖垮,蟻球在水勢稍退,有陸地可以停

靠時就可以迅速變成隊伍,讓工蟻把蟻后拖咬上岸。 螞蟻的身體是由頭部、胸部和腹部所構成的;頭部有口器和觸角。腹部會分泌出一種傳訊費洛蒙,好讓後來的夥伴能嗅出這種分泌物的氣味,循著路徑前進。至於觸角是用來傳遞彼此間的訊息;一般而言,牠們都有複眼,只是有的並不很大;不過也有些沒有複眼。

螞蟻的胸部有六隻腳,前腳清潔觸角的觸角梳,作用和刷子、梳子一樣。胸部和腹部中間,有一個小小的腹柄,這是螞蟻的特徵。

螞蟻就如同成群聚集在小樹枝的蚜蟲,或在稻田裡的蝗蟲大軍一樣;可見動物裡面有很多成群行動的。但牠們不一定只有依賴團體才能生活。

但是,螞蟻就不同了,如把牠們一隻隻分開來,是沒有辦法生存的,牠們彼此分配食物,腹部發出費洛蒙的氣味,觸角相互碰觸傳遞信息,這些都是為過著有規律的團體生活所必需的。因此把牠們歸為社會性昆蟲。除了螞蟻以外,還有蜜蜂和白蟻,也是過著社會性生活。

螞蟻以巢為生活中心,大多數的螞蟻都在土中築巢,但是也有些種類是在地上的枯樹枝裡生活,或在樹幹裡築巢的。另外,由於螞蟻的種類很多,因此其食性也很複雜,牠們有的以動物性或植物性為主食;甚至,在南美洲,有些切葉蟻,能像農夫栽植菇類一樣,以真菌作為牠們食物呢!

由於螞蟻群有一定的生活性和食物性,為避免相互間的爭奪,牠們會盡量分開來居住。

螞蟻有蟻后、雄蟻、工蟻之分,牠們彼此扮演著不同的角色,如工蟻有兵蟻之稱,職司防衛任務。壽命是一年或兩年。雄蟻會在繁殖季節裡,與蟻后交尾後不久即死亡。但蟻后卻可活上十年,牠每年可產許多卵,因此只要有蟻后,螞蟻的巢穴就會綿延不斷的繁殖起來。

1 Answer

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    Cavity stickleback

    Systematic name: Latimeria chalumnae

    common name: Coelacanths

    In nickname sea king (the king of the sea) the cavity stickleback, recently caused many biologists to invest the discussion.As soon as starts the scientist to think they already extinguished ; Afterwards a scientist has discovered a sample in South Africa, but certainly has not preserved; The one after another some people discovered the cavity stickleback and makes the specimen; Until recently group of scientists touches in the Luo river island open sea in the branch to discover two cavities sticklebacks, but the scientist thought that two are not the main fish groups, but was very happily had the so important discovery.

    Famous activation rockfish; Since the cavity stickleback all was continuously considered is animal which only has in the fossil, it in Devonian period to Jurassic Period (three hundred million seven surely years ago to hundred million five surely years ago) this period of time are very common, but was considered when cretaceous period extinguished the light. When 1939, a scientist has discovered a sample in the South African seacoast, but he has not certainly preserved the fish, the fish finally decomposes. The scientist certainly did not know that, frequently attains in the branch not Luo river this place fisherman in theirs fishing discovers the cavity stickleback. Because this parent fish cannot eat does not have the value, the fisherman catches this parent fish all is discards it. On the island inhabitant brings excitedly regarding the cavity stickleback is aloof, but very happy this kind of they are called Kombessa the fish turns the precious fish.

    Why does the cavity stickleback such receive everybody the attention, my understanding, classifies to the following several points:

    。The most famous fish live fossil, was considered as early as should extinguish in seven surely years ago biology, afterwards has unexpectedly discovered the living specimen.

    。Possibly is the fish nearly turns into an amphibious kind of among important link, hunts for the dragon like China possibly is the dinosaur evolves in the birds, a count for much link like that.

    。Although has already discovered the survival cavity stickleback, but the quantity is short to quickly turned the real fossil.

    。The cavity stickleback's is not surely big with seven years ago change, is how condition let the cavity stickleback have the original story the fish which could adapt to circumstances or environment with other to survive together down.

    Annotate: The Comoro archipelago sea, is leaving the shore 100 meters place, some many places water depth surpasses 1,000 meters, but is approaching the seacoast sunlight the sufficient place, some piece narrow but very developed coral reef (裙礁). Downward looked from the coral reef edge that, may see the lava black rock, with the steep slope which forms by the dark color sand, a nature extends the deep sea, the lava rock everywhere forms in the water the cavern. In a deeper seabed, everywhere obviously the monotonous rock and has the ripple the sand slope gradually to hide, and in coelenterate's whip 海柳 coral and black fish. From the water depth 200 to 500 meter neighbor, the fish which catches has 鯖 the hairtail and the wild rose belt 鰆 and so on. These live together with the cavity stickleback in the deep sea fish, all some pair also sees the big eye under the weak light which sees, gathers incisive dentition which as soon as bites does not put; In the pitch-dark sea, these fish may 胼 and the cavity stickleback compete to struggle the food.

    The habitual cavity stickleback is the travelling by night cavity stickleback daytime hides in a water depth 170~230 meter cavern static is motionless, after the sunset, swims in twos and threes toward the deep place migration, the capture game. The cavity stickleback is closely nips the game with his/her incisive tooth, then a tone swallows down, they only can catch arrive the oral area dead ahead game, this is the reflective behavior. Like saves the energy only to rely on the probability like this which the fortuitous hunting way succeeds very few, therefore the attack essential both agile and is accurate, therefore its forehead 先端 lips function sensation game when swimming sends out the weak electric field, then the determination game's position cavity stickleback is being reduced year by year The cavity stickleback's alight, scientist's publication lets it become famous overnight, the cavity stickleback is limited, but humanity's ambition is infinite, the over-trapping and the nonchalant injury, cause the number extremely quick reduction. Saves in these deep seas the live fossil, needs a huge funds, the world each place scientist, is raising, we hoped for this day will be able soon to arrive. The ant because the body is small, cannot break through the water the surface tension, therefore may float very long period of time in the water surface front, completely loses to the body 溼 passes cannot sink, if is the sole ant mostly is because water flowing brings it to the isolation on the water object, but big group ant so long as sacrifices the partial ants, also may use the ant sea tactic to put up the ant body bateau-bridge the destination which arrives through the water surface wants. Rains, the worker ants can revolve to form spherically, is called "ant ball", 蟻后 will encircle in central protects, and matter and so on secretion fat will let the ant ball not be able to shatter by the water, the ant ball when 水勢 slightly will draw back, has the land will be allowed to anchor may rapidly turn the troop, will let the worker ant 蟻后 tow nips comes ashore. Ant's body is by the forehead, the chest and the abdomen constitutes; The forehead has the mouth apparatus and the antenna. The abdomen can secrete one kind of subpoena 費洛 Mongolia, good enabled the afterwards partner to smell this kind of secretion the smell, followed the way advance. Is uses for as for the antenna to transmit each other the news; Generally speaking, they all have the duplicate eye, only is some not very is certainly big; But also somewhat does not have the duplicate eye. Ant's chest has six feet, the first foot clean antenna antenna combs, the function and the brush, the comb are same. Among chest and abdomen, some small abdomen handle, this is ant's characteristic. The ant is similar to gathers in groups at the small branch's ophid, or is same in the rice paddy locust army; Obviously inside the animal has very many moves in groups. But they not necessarily only have the dependent association to be able to live. But, the ant has been different, if only separates their, is does not have the means survival, their each other assignment food, the abdomen sends out 費洛 Mongolia's smell, the antenna mutually bumps touches the transmission information, these all are has had for the orderly group life. Therefore converges them the social insect. Besides ant, but also has the honeybee and the termite, also is the social life. The ant take the nest as the life center, the majority ant all builds the nest in the earth, but also some types are live in the place dry branch, or builds the nest in the bough. Moreover, because ant's type very many, therefore its feeding habits very are also complex, they have take the animalism or the vegetative quality as the staple food; Even, in the South America, some leaf-cutters, can transplant the mushroom class like the farmer to be same, to the fungus takes their food! Because the ant group has the certain life and food, for avoids mutually between capture, they can divide as far as possible come the housing. The ant has 蟻后, the aner, the worker ant division of, their each other acting different role, if the worker ant has name of the soldier ant, the duty department defense duty. The life is year or two years. The aner can in the reproduction season, after 蟻后 交尾 soon be the death. But 蟻后 actually may exactly ten years, it every year be possible to produce many eggs, therefore so long as has 蟻后, ant's lair can be continuous the unceasing reproduction.

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