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Anonymous asked in 藝術與人文書籍與作家 · 1 decade ago

About Arthur Miller~!(in hurry

1.what is arthur miller's political background/philosophy

2.what is the house committe on un-american activities and how does it parallel the court in Miller's play?

3. Who is Senator Joseph Mccarthy and how were his actions similar to the action of characters from the play

pls help me with these Q's if anyone knows it~

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    1.what is arthur miller's political background/philosophyIn his mid-thirties, Arthur Miller achieved a stunning fusion of his artistic powers and his thematic preoccupations in Death of a Salesman, a play that left its first audience in overwhelmed silence and brought its author a Pulitzer Prize and instant celebrity. Nothing that Miller has done in the half-century since then has equalled—perhaps nothing could equal—the triumph of that play, but he has in the intervening decades produced a body of theatrical work that is notable for its examination of the often tortured nature of human relationships, especially among family members, for its preoccupation with the individual's relationship to social forces, and for its insistence on the need to live a life of moral responsibility, and in so doing, he has become one of the most distinguished American writers of our time. Early YearsArthur Asher Miller was born in New York City on October 17, 1915, the second of three children of Isidore Miller, a manufacturer of women's coats who had emigrated from Austria, and Augusta (Barnett) Miller. Shortly after graduating with honors from high school, his mother, a spirited young woman with intellectual and cultural interests, had been forced into an arranged marriage with Miller's father, a fact that still deeply distressed her for many years thereafter. With no one in her family able to satisfy her need for intellectual stimulation, she hired a Columbia University student to discuss literature with her. Miller's early circumstances were comfortable, but when his father's business failed in 1929, the family began a downward spiral that culminated in the loss of their home and consequent move to Brooklyn. In his middle teens at the time, Miller never forgot the hopelessness that overtook his father and the tensions that it produced between his parents. The loss of personal security at such a crucial point in his own development bred in him a lifelong sensitivity to the individual's helplessness in the face of large and incomprehensible social forces, as well as to the impact of such helplessness on one's sense of self and family relationships. Miller attended James Madison High School in Brooklyn, where he concentrated more on athletics than on the curriculum, and was consequently rejected by the University of Michigan in 1932 because of his poor academic performance. Since his grades ruled out the possibility of a college scholarship, he embarked on a private course of reading, and also worked at a series of jobs to help out at home and to save money for college tuition. A job at an auto-parts warehouse in Manhattan, where he was at first subjected to anti-Semitism from some of his co-workers, later became the basis for his one-act play A Memory of Two Mondays. A stint in the garment district, which exposed him to the precarious and bruising lives of salesmen, influenced his masterpiece Death of a Salesman. After several attempts, Miller was accepted by the University of Michigan in 1934. He was drawn to the study of history and of economics. Like many idealistic young people of the time, as well as many of their elders, he saw the Great Depression and the government's fumbling attempts to deal with it as an indictment of the capitalist system, and was attracted to socialism as an alternative that seemed to place more emphasis upon the needs of the individual. In his sophomore and junior years, Miller entered plays in the competition for the University's Avery Hopwood Award and won both times. The prize money and especially the recognition of his skills impelled him to pursue a career as a playwright. After graduating in 1938 with a degree in English, he worked briefly for the Federal Theater Project—which was shut down by Congress because of presumed Communist influence—and later wrote radio scripts for the Columbia Broadcasting System in New York. He was frustrated by the content restrictions on the material, but found the experience a good discipline in the honing of his playwriting skills. In 1940, he married Mary Slattery, a classmate from the University of Michigan, who was from a Catholic family. The marriage produced a son and a daughter. During the Second World War, after being physically disqualified from the military, Miller also worked in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Literary CareerIt was in the closing years of the Second World War, as he approached his thirtieth birthday, that Miller began to achieve some opportunities and the beginnings of success as a writer. His Broadway debut came in 1944 with a play titled The Man Who Had All the Luck. Miller himself did not have much luck, however, as the play closed after six performances. Even at the time, he regarded it as a failed work, and after its inclusion in an anthology in the year of its Broadway production, he has never reprinted it. Faced with the need to support his family, he turned temporarily from the theater and published two books, Situation Normal (1944), a nonfiction account of the lives and feelings of ordinary soldiers going off to war, and Focus (1945), a symbol-laden and somewhat melodramatic novel about a "normally" anti-Semitic man whose life is turned inside out when, after he is fitted for eyeglasses, he begins to be mistaken for a Jew. The theme of the individual's relationship to society, common to all of these works, was combined with Miller's strong interest in family dynamics and issues of personal moral responsibility in All My Sons, his first theatrical success, which opened on Broadway in 1947 for a run of 328 performances and was published in the same year. In this play, a manufacturer is forced by his surviving son, a war veteran who has grown estranged from him, to confront the moral dimensions of his having sold defective airplane equipment to the army. Although, like many of Miller's plays, it has moments of great emotional power, especially in scenes of confrontation, it has not worn well, and now seems overtly didactic and rather histrionic. The financial success of All My Sons enabled Miller to buy a farm in Connecticut, where he worked on the play that would bring him a permanent place in American theater when it premiered in New York in 1949. Death of a Salesman is, by any reckoning, Miller's masterpiece, the play in which he achieves a near-perfect fusion of the themes that have obsessed his writing—family relationships, especially between fathers and sons; the "low man" as the victim of cruelly indifferent social and economic forces; the corruptive influence of shallow and materialistic values; and above all, the need (met with varying degrees of success by the principal characters in this play) for honest self-confrontation and for recognition and acceptance of responsibility for one's actions. In addition, the brilliance of the dialogue in its blending of poetic and colloquial effects, the extraordinary skill shown in the merging of realistic and expressionistic techniques, and the raw emotional power of the play all further enhance its status as one of the finest accomplishments of American drama. Miller's next original play was The Crucible (1953), his account of one of the most bizarre and tragic episodes in American history, the hysteria of the witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692. The willingness of its protagonist, John Proctor, to publicly acknowledge his own failings while refusing to falsely implicate others led most people to view this play as a transparent allegory of the Communist "witch hunts" of the late 1940s and early 1950s, and it was criticized from both the right and the left for presumed defects in the comparison. Miller himself would be called before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1956. As a result of his testimony, he was cited and subsequently convicted of contempt of Congress, but his conviction was later overturned on appeal. Freed from the passions of its time and examined purely on its own terms, The Crucible remains—as witnessed by the recent film made from it—a morally complex and searingly powerful work, one that is increasingly recognized as one of Miller's finest accomplishments. Miller's marriage had for years been in an increasing state of disrepair, and he and his wife were divorced in 1956. Shortly thereafter, he astonished millions by announcing that less than three weeks after the divorce he had secretly married movie actress Marilyn Monroe. The period of their marriage proved to be an unsettled time in Miller's life: in addition to his legal difficulties, his one-act plays A Memory of Two Mondays and A View from the Bridge were poorly received (although the latter, another study of the tragic consequences of lack of self-recognition, was more successful in a revised two-act version), and the gravitational pull of his relationship with Monroe drew him more and more deeply into her orbit. His screenplay for The Misfits (1961) gave her a rare opportunity to demonstrate her abilities as a serious actress, in what would be her last completed film. Miller and Monroe were divorced in 1960. In August of 1962 she was found dead of alcohol and barbiturate overdose, in circumstances that remain unresolved. Also in 1962, Miller married Inge Morath, a photographer, with whom he has collaborated on several books. This marriage has also produced a son and a daughter. Miller's play After the Fall (1964), his most ambitious work for the stage and in many ways his most autobiographical, received a generally negative reception, with criticisms of its length and talkiness, as well as unfair accusations that Miller had exploited his relationship with Monroe. His next two plays were much tighter in construction. Incident at Vichy (1965) used the Nazi terror to explore issues of personal courage and responsibility, and The Price (1968) dealt with the tensions between two grown brothers over their father's legacy. It was successful with the public, but somewhat less so with critics. LegacyMixed success, at best, has been the fate of the New York productions of Miller's plays of the last several decades. Frustrated by the blockbuster mentality and runaway costs that he sees as inimical to the encouragement of serious drama on Broadway, he has preferred to stage his recent work in London, where it has been much more enthusiastically received. Despite having passed his eightieth birthday, he remains remarkably energetic and prolific: in addition to his continuing work for the stage, he has published several volumes of short stories, a long autobiography, and several other nonfiction works, including a book about his experiences directing a production of Death of a Salesman in Beijing. It is too early to assess the ultimate impact of a career that, by all indications, is still far from completed—Mr. Peters' Connections, his most recent play, premiered in New York in May 1998—and opinion remains deeply divided over the value of many of his plays, but, beyond any question, Arthur Miller has enriched our theater with his artistry, his emotional intensity, and his moral seriousness, and although it remains to be seen which others of his works will join them, there is no doubt that The Crucible and especially Death of a Salesman will be permanently inscribed in the American literary record. 2.what is the house committe on un-american activities and how does it parallel the court in Miller's play? IntroductionThe House Un-American Activities Committee or HUAC (or, rarely, HUAAC) (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to the Committee on Internal Security. The House abolished the committee in 1975 and its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.


    In 1953, playwright Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible, an allegory for McCarthyism. This was probably the primary cause for Miller being brought before the House Committee on Un-American Activities in 19563. Who is Senator Joseph Mccarthy and how were his actions similar to the action of characters from the play You might check on this website this website is often incorrectly described as part of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), which is well known for the investigation of Alger Hiss which helped bring Richard Nixon into prominence. HUAC was established in May of 1938 as the "Dies Committee" before McCarthy was elected to the Federal office, and, being a House committee, had no connection with McCarthy who served in the Senate.

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