Cost of Capital Effects

Cost of Capital Effects: Indicate the probable effect on the cost of equity i.e. the return required by shareholders of the company, of the following scenarios. If it is going to increase, use “+”, for decrease use “-“ and if no change is expected use “0”.
Update: (a)Corporate tax rate is lowered
(b)Firm expands into a risky area
(c)Firm merges with another firm whose earnings are counter-cyclical to both those of the firm and the overall market
Update 2: please give short explainations, tks
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