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榮宏 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago

何謂複合詞

英文中的複合詞還有哪些~大概是像 newspaper~classmate就是拆開後各自還是有涵義的單字~請大家不吝指教

2 Answers

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  • 2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    在英語中,字 (尤其是形容詞和名詞)以多種方式結合成複合結構。複合字一旦形成,它們有時會隨時間而變形。一個常見的模式是,兩個字 -- 譬如說,fire fly -- 經過一段時間後 以連字號結合在一起 -- fire-fly -- 然後又結合成一個字 -- firefly。我們只有一個方法可以知道英語複合字的拼字,那就是查閱權威的字典。

    複合字有三種型態:

    封閉型態 (closed form),如 firefly, secondhand, softball, childlike, crosstown, redhead, keyboard, makeup, notebook。

    加連字號型態 (hyphenated form),如 daughter-in-law, master-at-arms, over-the-counter, six-pack, six-year-old, mass-produced。

    開放型態 (open form),如 post office, real estate, middle class, full moon, half sister, attorney general。

    修飾用的複合字經常被加上連字號以避免混淆。紐約公立圖書館的「寫作者指南」(Writer's Guide) 指出,an old-furniture salesman 顯然是從事古家具的交易,但 an old furniture salesman 必定是個老人。然而,我們對 a used car dealer 可能就不會有這樣的混淆了。當複合修飾語位在名詞的前面時,它們通常加連字號:part-time teacher, fifty-yard-wide field, fire-resistant curtains, high-speed chase。然而,當這些相同的修飾用字位在名詞的後面時,它們不加連字號:: a field fifty yards wide, curtains that are fire resistant, 等等。The second-rate opera company gave a performance that was first rate。

    形容詞的比較級和最高級在與其他修飾語複合時加連字號:the highest-priced car, the shorter-term loan。但這並非亙古不變的定律:the most talented youngster。以 ly 做字尾的副詞在與其他修飾語複合時不加連字號:a highly rated bank, a partially refunded ticket, publicly held securities。

    有時加連字號的修飾語在變成複合名詞時,其連字號自動消失:A clear decision-making process was evident in their decision making. The bluish grey was slowly disappearing from the bluish-grey sky。但這也並非總是如此:your high-rise apartment building is also known as a high-rise。

    當以一個人的年齡來修飾他或她時,該複合片語加連字號:my six-year-old son。但當年齡位在人的後面時,我們不加連字號:My son is six years old. 然而,He is a six-year-old.

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago

    就是複合字,它有很多,例如:housewife,housekeeper,

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