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請幫忙翻譯英文(文章要通順)20點

Omega 30 (2002) 347 – 357

www.elsevier.com/locate/dsw

Cooperative advertising, game theoryand manufacturer–retailer

supplychains

Susan X. Lia, Zhimin Huanga;∗, Joe Zhub, Patrick Y.K. Chauc

aSchool of Business, Adelphi University, Garden City, Long Island, NY 11530, USA

bDepartment of Management, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA

cSchool of Business, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Received 15 May2001; accepted 21 August 2002

Abstract

Cooperative (co-op) advertising plays a signi4cant role in marketing programs in conventional supply chains and makes up

the majorityof promotional budgets in manyproduct lines for both manufacturers and retailers. We develop three strategic

models for determining equilibrium marketing and investment e8ort levels for a manufacturer and a retailer in a two-member

supplychain. Especially, we address the impact of brand name investments, local advertising, and sharing policyon co-op

advertising programs in these models. The 4rst model o8ers a formal normative approach for analyzing the traditional co-op

advertising program where the manufacturer is the leader and the retailer is a follower. The second model provides a further

analysis on this manufacturer-dominated relationship. The third model incorporates the recent market trend of retailing power

shifts from manufacturers to retailers to analyze e<ciencies of co-op advertising programs. We examine the e8ect of supply

chain on the di8erences in pro4ts resulting from following coordinated strategies as opposed to leader–follower strategies. A

cooperative bargaining approach is utilized for determine the best co-op advertising scheme for achieving full coordination in

the supplychain.

? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Co-op advertising; Supplychains; Leader–follower relationship; Pareto e<ciencies; Bargaining model

1. Introduction

Cooperative (co-op) advertising is an interactive relationship

between two members in a manufacturer–retailer

supplychain. In this relationship, the retailer initiates and

implements a local advertisement and the manufacturer pays

part of the costs. A manufacturer uses co-op advertising to

motivate immediate sales at the retail level and uses national

advertising to in@uence potential consumers to consider its

brand and to help develop brand knowledge and preference.

Retailer’s local advertising, with the passage of time, brings

potential consumers to the stage of desire and action and

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-516-877-4633; fax: +1-516-

877-4607.

E-mail address: huang@adelphi.edu (Z. Huang).

gives an immediate reason to buy. Co-op advertising o8ers

consumers the information needs when theymove through

the 4nal stages of purchase and a congruence of information

and information needs that would be impossible if the manufacturer

uses onlynational advertising. In addition to the

same objective of immediate sales at the retail level as the

manufacturer, the retailer utilizes co-op advertising to reduce

substantiallyits total promotional expense bysharing

the cost of advertising with the manufacturer.

In the marketing and economics literature, co-op advertising

models in manufacturer–retailer supplychains have

focused on a relationship where the manufacturer is a

leader and the retailer is a follower. The main subject of the

research is design and management [?–?]. We are intended

to discuss the relationship between classical co-op advertising

models and fullycoordinated co-op advertising

models developed in this paper. The investigation of the

0305-0483/02/$ - see front matter ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0305-0483(02)00051-8

3 Answers

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    Ω30 (2002) 347 - 357

    www.elsevier.com/locate/dsw

    合作做廣告, 遊戲theoryand 製造商販商

    supplychains

    蘇珊・X. Lia, Zhimin Huanga;?, 喬・Zhub, 帕特里克・Y.K. Chauc

    事務aSchool, Adelphi 大學, 花園城市, 長島, NY 11530, 美國

    管理, 渥斯特工學院, 渥斯特, 麻省01609 的bDepartment, 美國

    事務學校, 香港, 香港大學

    接受15 May2001; 接受2002 年8月21 日

    摘要

    合作(co-op) 做廣告充當在產品銷售組織計劃的一個signi4cant 角色在常規供應鏈和組成

    majorityof 增進預算在manyproduct 排行為製造者和販商。我們開發三戰略

    模型為確定平衡營銷和投資e8ort 水平為製造商和一個販商在二成員

    supplychain 。特別是, 我們表達名牌投資, 區域性廣告, 和分享policyon co-op 的影響

    給節目做廣告在這些模型。4rst 模型o8ers 一種正式基準方法為分析傳統co-op

    給製造者是領導和販商的節目做廣告是追隨者。第二個模型提供一更加進一步

    分析在這個被製造商控制的關係。第三個模型合併零售力量最近市場趨向

    轉移從製造商到販商分析co-op e<ciencies 給節目做廣告。我們審查供應e8ect

    鏈子在di8erences 在pro4ts 起因於跟隨被協調的戰略與領導追隨者戰略相對。A

    合作講價的方法被運用為確定最佳的co-op 給計劃做廣告為達到充分的協調

    supplychain 。

    ? Elsevier 2002 年科學有限公司。版權所有。

    主題詞: Co-op 做廣告; Supplychains; 領導追隨者關係; Pareto e<ciencies; 講價的模型

    1. 介紹

    合作(co-op) 做廣告是一個交互式關係

    在二名成員之間在製造商販商

    supplychain 。在這個關係, 販商發起和

    實施一個地方廣告並且製造商支付

    一部分的費用。製造商使用co-op 做廣告

    刺激直接銷售在零售水平和用途全國

    做廣告對in@uence 潛在的消費者考慮它

    品牌和幫助開發品牌知識和特選。

    販商的區域性廣告, 在一段時間, 帶來

    潛在的消費者對慾望和行動階段和

    ? 對應的作者。Tel.: +1-516-877-4633; 電傳: +1-516-

    877-4607 。

    電子郵件: huang@adelphi.edu (Z. 黃) 。

    給一個直接原因買。Co-op 給o8ers 做廣告

    消費者資訊需求當theymove 通過

    購買4nal 階段和資訊一致

    並且會是不可能的如果製造商的資訊需求

    使用onlynational 做廣告。除之外

    直接銷售同樣宗旨在零售水平作為

    製造商, 販商運用co-op 做廣告減少

    substantiallyits 總增進費用bysharing

    廣告費用與製造商。

    在營銷和經濟文學, 關做廣告

    模型在製造商販商supplychains 有

    集中於製造商是a 的關係

    領導和販商是追隨者。主科

    研究是設計並且管理[?-?]. 我們意欲

    談論關係在古典co-op 做廣告之間

    模型和fullycoordinated co-op 做廣告

    模型顯現了出在本文裡。調查

    0305-0483/02/$ - 參見前面問題? Elsevier 2002 年科學有限公司。版權所有。

    PII: S0305-0483(02)00051-8

    Source(s): ...
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