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Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 1 / 47 16 July 2004
2005 FORMULA ONE TECHNICAL REGULATIONS
ARTICLE 1 : DEFINITIONS
1.1 Formula One Car
1.3 Land Vehicle
1.6 Complete wheel
1.7 Automobile Make
1.10 Racing weight
1.11 Cubic capacity
1.14 Sprung suspension
1.15 Survival cell
1.17 Camera housing
1.18 Cockpit padding
1.19 Brake calliper
1.20 Electronically controlled
ARTICLE 2 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES
2.1 Role of the FIA
2.2 Amendments to the regulations
2.3 Dangerous construction
2.4 Compliance with the regulations
2.6 Duty of competitor
ARTICLE 3 : BODYWORK AND DIMENSIONS
3.1 Wheel centre line
3.2 Height measurements
3.3 Overall width
3.4 Width ahead of the rear wheel centre line
3.5 Width behind the rear wheel centre line
3.6 Overall height
3.7 Front bodywork height
3.8 Height in front of the rear wheels
3.9 Bodywork between the rear wheels
3.10 Height behind the rear wheel centre line
3.11 Bodywork around the front wheels
3.12 Bodywork facing the ground
3.13 Skid block
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 2 / 47 16 July 2004
3.15 Aerodynamic influence
3.16 Upper bodywork
3.17 Bodywork flexibility
ARTICLE 4 : WEIGHT
4.1 Minimum weight
4.3 Adding during the race
ARTICLE 5 : ENGINE
5.1 Engine specification
5.2 Other means of propulsion
5.3 Engine intake air
5.4 Exhaust system
5.5 Engine materials
5.6 Starting the engine
5.7 Stall prevention
ARTICLE 6 : FUEL SYSTEM
6.1 Fuel tanks
6.2 Fittings and piping
6.3 Crushable structure
6.4 Tank fillers
6.6 Fuel sampling
ARTICLE 7 : OIL AND COOLANT SYSTEMS
7.1 Location of oil tanks
7.2 Longitudinal location of oil system
7.3 Catch tank
7.4 Transversal location of oil system
7.5 Coolant header tank
7.6 Cooling systems
7.7 Oil and coolant lines
ARTICLE 8 : ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
8.1 Software validation
8.2 Start systems
8.3 Accident data recorders
8.4 Marshal information display
ARTICLE 9 : TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
9.1 Transmission types
9.2 Clutch control
9.3 Gear ratios
9.4 Reverse gear
9.5 Torque transfer systems
ARTICLE 10 : SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEMS
10.1 Sprung suspension
10.2 Suspension geometry
10.3 Suspension members
ARTICLE 11 : BRAKE SYSTEM
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 3 / 47 16 July 2004
11.1 Brake circuits and pressure distribution
11.2 Brake calipers
11.3 Brake discs
11.4 Air ducts
11.5 Brake pressure modulation
11.6 Liquid cooling
ARTICLE 12 : WHEELS AND TYRES
12.2 Number of wheels
12.3 Wheel material
12.4 Wheel dimensions
ARTICLE 13 : COCKPIT
13.1 Cockpit opening
13.2 Steering wheel
13.3 Internal cross section
13.4 Position of the driver’s feet
ARTICLE 14 : SAFETY EQUIPMENT
14.1 Fire extinguishers
14.2 Master switch
14.3 Rear view mirrors
14.4 Safety belts
14.5 Rear light
14.6 Cockpit padding
14.7 Wheel retention
14.8 Seat fixing and removal
14.9 Head and neck supports
ARTICLE 15 : CAR CONSTRUCTION
15.2 Roll structures
15.3 Structure behind the driver
15.4 Survival cell specifications
15.5 Survival cell safety requirements
ARTICLE 16 : IMPACT TESTING
16.1 Conditions applicable to all impact tests
16.2 Frontal test
16.3 Side test
16.4 Rear test
16.5 Steering column test
ARTICLE 17 : ROLL STRUCTURE TESTING
17.1 Conditions applicable to both roll structure tests
17.2 Principal roll structure test
17.3 Second roll structure test
ARTICLE 18 : STATIC LOAD TESTING
18.1 Conditions applicable to all static load tests
18.2 Survival cell side tests
18.3 Fuel tank floor test
18.4 Cockpit rim test
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 4 / 47 16 July 2004
18.5 Nose push off test
18.6 Side intrusion test
ARTICLE 19 : FUEL
19.1 Purpose of Article 19
19.4 Composition of the fuel
19.7 Fuel approval
19.8 Sampling and testing
19.9 Amendments to Article 19
ARTICLE 20 : TELEVISION CAMERAS
20.1 Presence of cameras and camera housings
20.2 Location of camera housings
20.3 Location and fitting of camera and equipment
ARTICLE 21 : FINAL TEXT
ARTICLE 22 : CHANGES FOR 2006
22.1 Amendments to Article 5.1
22.2 Addition of an Article 5.2
22.3 Addition of an Article 5.3
22.4 Addition of an Article 5.4
22.5 Addition of an Article 5.5
22.6 Addition of an Article 5.6
22.7 Addition of an Article 5.7
22.8 Addition of an Article 5.8
22.9 Addition of an Article 5.9
22.10 Addition of an Article 5.10
22.11 Addition of an Article 5.11
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 5 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 1: DEFINITIONS
1.1 Formula One Car :
An automobile designed solely for speed races on circuits or closed courses.
1.2 Automobile :
A land vehicle running on at least four non-aligned complete wheels, of which at least two are used for
steering and at least two for propulsion.
1.3 Land vehicle :
A locomotive device propelled by its own means, moving by constantly taking real support on the earth's
surface, of which the propulsion and steering are under the control of a driver aboard the vehicle.
1.4 Bodywork :
All entirely sprung parts of the car in contact with the external air stream, except cameras and the parts
definitely associated with the mechanical functioning of the engine, transmission and running gear.
Airboxes, radiators and engine exhausts are considered to be part of the bodywork.
1.5 Wheel :
Flange and rim.
1.6 Complete wheel :
Wheel and inflated tyre. The complete wheel is considered part of the suspension system.
1.7 Automobile Make :
In the case of Formula racing cars, an automobile make is a complete car. When the car manufacturer fits
an engine which it does not manufacture, the car shall be considered a hybrid and the name of the engine
manufacturer shall be associated with that of the car manufacturer. The name of the car manufacturer
must always precede that of the engine manufacturer. Should a hybrid car win a Championship Title, Cup
or Trophy, this will be awarded to the manufacturer of the car.
1.8 Event :
An event shall consist of official practice and the race.
1.9 Weight :
Is the weight of the car with the driver, wearing his complete racing apparel, at all times during the event.
1.10 Racing weight :
Is the weight of the car in running order with the driver aboard and all fuel tanks full.
1.11 Cubic capacity :
The volume swept in the cylinders of the engine by the movement of the pistons. This volume shall be
expressed in cubic centimetres. In calculating engine cubic capacity, the number Pi shall be 3.1416.
1.12 Supercharging :
Increasing the weight of the charge of the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber (over the weight
induced by normal atmospheric pressure, ram effect and dynamic effects in the intake and/or exhaust
system) by any means whatsoever. The injection of fuel under pressure is not considered to be
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 6 / 47 16 July 2004
1.13 Cockpit :
The volume which accommodates the driver.
1.14 Sprung suspension :
The means whereby all complete wheels are suspended from the body/chassis unit by a spring medium.
1.15 Survival cell :
A continuous closed structure containing the fuel tank and the cockpit.
1.16 Camera :
Television cameras the dimensions of which are defined in Drawing 6.
1.17 Camera housing :
A device which is identical in shape and weight to a camera and which is supplied by the relevant
Competitor for fitting to his car in lieu of a camera.
1.18 Cockpit padding :
Non-structural parts placed within the cockpit for the sole purpose of improving driver comfort and safety.
All such material must be quickly removable without the use of tools.
1.19 Brake caliper :
All parts of the braking system outside the survival cell, other than brake discs, brake pads, caliper pistons,
brake hoses and fittings, which are stressed when subjected to the braking pressure. Bolts or studs which
are used for attachment are not considered to be part of the braking system.
1.20 Electronically controlled :
Any command system or process that utilises semi-conductor or thermionic technology.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 7 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 2 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES
2.1 Role of the FIA :
The following technical regulations for Formula 1 cars are issued by the FIA.
2.2 Amendments to the regulations :
Amendments to these regulations will be made in accordance with the Concorde agreement.
2.3 Dangerous construction :
The stewards of the meeting may exclude a vehicle whose construction is deemed to be dangerous.
2.4 Compliance with the regulations :
Automobiles must comply with these regulations in their entirety at all times during an Event.
Should a competitor feel that any aspect of these regulations is unclear, clarification may be sought from
the FIA Formula One Technical Department. If clarification relates to any new design or system,
correspondence must include :
- a full description of the design or system ;
- drawings or schematics where appropriate ;
- the Competitor's opinion concerning the immediate implications on other parts of the car of any
proposed new design ;
- the Competitor's opinion concerning any possible long term consequences or new developments
which may come from using any such new designs or systems ;
- the precise way or ways in which the Competitor feels the new design or system will enhance the
performance of the car.
2.5 Measurements :
All measurements must be made while the car is stationary on a flat horizontal surface.
2.6 Duty of Competitor :
It is the duty of each Competitor to satisfy the FIA technical delegate and the Stewards of the Meeting that
his automobile complies with these regulations in their entirety at all times during an Event.
The design of the car, it’s components and systems shall, with the exception of safety features,
demonstrate their compliance with these regulations by means of physical inspection of hardware or
materials. No mechanical design may rely upon software inspection as a means of ensuring its
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 8 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 3 : BODYWORK AND DIMENSIONS
For illustrations refer to drawings 1A-5A in the Appendix to these regulations
3.1 Wheel centre line :
The centre line of any wheel shall be deemed to be half way between two straight edges, perpendicular to
the surface on which the car is standing, placed against opposite sides of the complete wheel at the centre
of the tyre tread.
3.2 Height measurements :
All height measurements will be taken normal to and from the reference plane.
3.3 Overall width :
The overall width of the car, including complete wheels, must not exceed 1800mm with the steered wheels
in the straight ahead position. Overall width will be measured when the car is fitted with tyres inflated to 1.4
3.4 Width ahead of the rear wheel centre line :
3.4.1 Bodywork width ahead of the rear wheel centre line must not exceed 1400mm.
3.4.2 In order to prevent tyre damage to other cars, the top and forward edges of the lateral extremities of any
bodywork forward of the front wheels must be at least 10mm thick with a radius of at least 5mm.
3.5 Width behind the rear wheel centre line :
Bodywork width behind the rear wheel centre line must not exceed 1000mm.
3.6 Overall height :
No part of the bodywork may be more than 950mm above the reference plane.
3.7 Front bodywork height :
3.7.1 All bodywork situated forward of a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line, and more than
250mm from the centre line of the car, must be no less than 150mm and no more than 350mm above the
3.7.2 All bodywork situated forward of the front wheel centre line must be no less than 50mm above the
3.8 Height Bodywork in front of the rear wheels :
3.8.1 Other than the rear view mirrors, each with a maximum area in plan view of 12000mm², no bodywork
situated more than 330mm behind the front wheel centre line and more than 330mm forward of the rear
wheel centre line, which is more than 600mm above the reference plane, may be more than 300mm from
the centre line of the car.
3.8.2 No bodywork between the rear wheel centre line and a line 800mm forward of the rear wheel centre line,
which is more than 500mm from the centre line of the car, may be more than 500mm above the reference
3.8.3 No bodywork between the rear wheel centre line and a line 400mm forward of the rear wheel centre line,
which is more than 500mm from the centre line of the car, may be more than 300mm above the reference
3.8.4 With the rear wheels removed and when viewed from above, no bodywork more than 500mm from the car
centre line may lie between the rear wheel centre line and a point 400mm forward of it. Any bodywork
forming the forward inner corner of these areas may have a radius no greater than 140mm.
3.9 Bodywork between the rear wheels :
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 9 / 47 16 July 2004
3.9.1 No bodywork more than 100mm from the car centre line, and which is situated between the rear wheel
centre line and a point lying 330mm forward of it, may be more than 600mm above the reference plane.
3.9.2 No bodywork more than 50mm from the car centre line, and which is situated between the rear wheel
centre line and a point lying 150mm behind it may be more than 450mm above the reference plane.
3.10 Height behind the rear wheel centre line :
3.10.1 Any part of the car more than 150mm behind the centre line of the rear wheels must not be more than
800mm above the reference plane.
3.10.2 No bodywork behind the centre line of the rear wheels, and more than 150mm each side of the longitudinal
centre line of the car, may be less than 300mm above the reference plane.
3.10.3 Any bodywork more than 150mm behind the rear wheel centre line which is between 300mm and 600mm
above the reference plane, and between 75mm and 480mm from the car centre line, must lie in an area
when viewed from the side of the car that is situated between 300mm and 375mm above the reference
plane and between 150mm and 500mm behind the rear wheel centre line. When viewed from the side of
the car no longitudinal cross section may have more than one closed section in the lower area.
Any bodywork behind the rear wheel centre line which is more than 600mm above the reference plane, and
between 75mm and 480mm from the car centre line, must lie in an area when viewed from the side of the
car that is situated between 600mm and 800mm above the reference plane and between the rear wheel
centre line and a point 350mm behind it. When viewed from the side of the car, no longitudinal cross
section may have more than two closed sections in the upper area. Furthermore, the distance between
adjacent sections at any longitudinal plane must not exceed 15mm at their closest position.
Any bodywork more than 150mm behind the rear wheel centre line which is more than 300mm above the
reference plane, and between 75mm and 480mm from the car centre line, must lie in one of two areas
when viewed from the side of the car.
The lower area is situated from 300mm to 375mm above the reference plane, and from 150mm to 500mm
behind the rear wheel centre line. When viewed from the side of the car, no longitudinal cross section may
have more than one closed section in the lower area.
The upper area is situated from 600mm to 800mm above the reference plane, and from 150mm to 500mm
behind the rear wheel centre line. When viewed from the side of the car, no longitudinal cross section may
have more than two closed sections in the upper area. Furthermore, the distance between adjacent
sections at any longitudinal plane must not exceed 15mm at their closest position.
In side view, the projected area of the any bodywork lying between 300mm and 800mm above the
reference plane and between 150mm and 600mm behind the rear wheel centre line and a point 600mm
behind it must be greater than 230000mm².
3.11 Bodywork around the front wheels :
With the exception of brake cooling ducts, in plan view, there must be no bodywork in the area formed by
two longitudinal lines parallel to and 400mm and 900mm from the car centre line and two transversal lines,
one 350mm forward of and one 800mm behind the front wheel centre line.
3.12 Bodywork facing the ground :
3.12.1 All sprung parts of the car situated more than 330mm behind the front wheel centre line and more than
330mm forward of the rear wheel centre line, and which are visible from underneath, must form surfaces
which lie on one of two parallel planes, the reference plane or the step plane. This does not apply to any
parts of rear view mirrors which are visible, provided each of these areas does not exceed 12000mm²
when projected to a horizontal plane above the car. The step plane must be 50mm above the reference
3.12.2 Additionally, the surface formed by all parts lying on the reference plane must :
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 10 / 47 16 July 2004
- extend from a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line to the centre line of the rear
- have minimum and maximum widths of 300mm and 500mm respectively ;
- be symmetrical about the centre line of the car ;
- have a 50mm radius (+/-2mm) on each front corner when viewed from directly beneath the car, this
being applied after the surface has been defined.
3.12.3 The surface lying on the reference plane must be joined around its periphery to the surfaces lying on the
step plane by a vertical transition. If there is no surface visible on the step plane vertically above any point
around the periphery of the reference plane, this transition is not necessary.
3.12.4 The peripheries of the surfaces lying on the reference and step planes may be curved upwards with
maximum radii of 25 and 50mm respectively. Where the vertical transition meets the surfaces on the step
plane a radius, no greater than 25mm, is permitted.
A radius in this context will be considered as an arc applied perpendicular to the periphery and tangential
to both surfaces.
The surface lying on the reference plane, the surfaces lying on the step plane, the vertical transitions
between them and any surfaces rearward of the surfaces lying on the reference or step planes, must first
be fully defined before any radius can be applied or the skid block fitted. Any radius applied is still
considered part of the relevant surface.
3.12.5 All parts lying on the reference and step planes, in addition to the transition between the two planes, must
produce uniform, solid, hard, continuous, rigid (no degree of freedom in relation to the body/chassis unit),
impervious surfaces under all circumstances.
Fully enclosed holes are permitted in the surfaces lying on the reference and step planes provided no part
of the car is visible through them when viewed from directly below.
3.12.6 To help overcome any possible manufacturing problems, and not to permit any design which may
contravene any part of these regulations, dimensional tolerances are permitted on bodywork lying on the
reference or step planes situated between a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line and the
rear wheel centre line. A vertical tolerance of +/- 5mm is permissible across these surfaces lying on the
reference and step planes and a horizontal tolerance of 5mm is permitted when assessing whether a
surface is visible from beneath the car.
3.12.7 No bodywork more than 150mm from the car centre line, which is visible from beneath the car and which
lies between the rear wheel centre line and a point 330mm forward of it may be more than 125mm above
the reference plane. Additionally, any bodywork in this area must produce uniform, solid, hard, continuous,
rigid (no degree of freedom in relation to the body/chassis unit), impervious surfaces under all
3.12.8 All sprung parts of the car situated behind a point lying 330mm forward of the rear wheel centre line, which
are visible from underneath and are more than 250mm from the centre line of the car, must be at least
50mm above the reference plane.
3.13 Skid block :
3.13.1 Beneath the surface formed by all parts lying on the reference plane, a rectangular skid block, with a
50mm radius (+/-2mm) on each front corner, must be fitted. This skid block may comprise more than one
piece but must :
a) extend longitudinally from a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line to the centre line of
the rear wheels.
b) be made from an homogeneous material with a specific gravity between 1.3 and 1.45.
c) have a width of 300mm with a tolerance of +/- 2mm.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 11 / 47 16 July 2004
d) have a thickness of 10mm with a tolerance of +/- 1mm.
e) have a uniform thickness when new.
f) have no holes or cut outs other than those necessary to fit the fasteners permitted by 3.13.2 or those
holes specifically mentioned in g) below.
g) have seven precisely placed holes the positions of which are detailed in Drawing 1. In order to
establish the conformity of the skid block after use, it's thickness will only be measured in the four
50mm diameter holes and the two forward 80mm diameter holes.
Four further 10mm diameter holes are permitted provided their sole purpose is to allow access to the
bolts which secure the Accident Data Recorder to the survival cell.
h) be fixed symmetrically about the centre line of the car in such a way that no air may pass between it
and the surface formed by the parts lying on the reference plane.
3.13.2 Fasteners used to attach the skid block to the car must :
a) have a total area no greater than 40000mm² when viewed from directly beneath the car ;
b) be no greater than 2000mm² in area individually when viewed from directly beneath the car ;
c) be fitted in order that their entire lower surfaces are visible from directly beneath the car.
When the skid block is new, ten of the fasteners may be flush with it’s lower surface but the remainder may
be no more than 8mm below the reference plane.
3.13.3 The lower edge of the periphery of the skid block may be chamfered at an angle of 30° to a depth of 8mm,
the trailing edge however may be chamfered over a distance of 200mm to a depth of 8mm.
3.14 Overhangs :
No part of the car may be more than 600mm behind the centre line of the rear wheels or more than
1200mm in front of the centre line of the front wheels.
No part of the car less than 480mm from the centre line of the car may be more than 500mm behind the
centre line of the rear wheels.
No part of the bodywork more than 200mm from the centre line of the car may be more than 900mm in
front of the front wheel centre line.
All overhang measurements will be taken parallel to the reference plane.
3.15 Aerodynamic influence :
Any specific part of the car influencing its aerodynamic performance (with the exception of the cover
described in Article 6.5.2 in the pit lane only) :
- Must comply with the rules relating to bodywork.
- Must be rigidly secured to the entirely sprung part of the car (rigidly secured means not having any
degree of freedom).
- Must remain immobile in relation to the sprung part of the car.
Any device or construction that is designed to bridge the gap between the sprung part of the car and the
ground is prohibited under all circumstances.
No part having an aerodynamic influence and no part of the bodywork, with the exception of the skid block
in 3.13 above, may under any circumstances be located below the reference plane.
3.16 Upper bodywork :
3.16.1 With the exception of the opening described in Article 3.16.3, when viewed from the side, the car must
have bodywork in the area bounded by four lines. One vertical 1330mm forward of the rear wheel centre
line, one horizontal 550mm above the reference plane, one horizontal 925mm above the reference plane
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 12 / 47 16 July 2004
and one diagonal which intersects the 925mm horizontal at a point 1000mm forward of the rear wheel
centreline and the 550mm horizontal at the rear wheel centreline.
Bodywork within this area must be arranged symmetrically about the car centre line and, when measured
200mm vertically below the diagonal boundary line, must have minimum widths of 150mm and 50mm
respectively at points lying 1000mm forward of the rear wheel centre line and at the rear wheel centre line.
This bodywork must lie on or outside the boundary defined by a linear taper between these minimum
3.16.2 Bodywork lying vertically above the upper boundary as defined in 3.16.1 may be no wider than 125mm and
must be arranged symmetrically about the car centreline.
3.16.3 In order that a car may be lifted quickly in the event of it stopping on the circuit, the principal rollover
structure must incorporate a clearly visible unobstructed opening designed to permit a strap, whose section
measures 60mm x 30mm, to pass through it.
3.17 Bodywork flexibility :
3.17.1 Bodywork may deflect no more than 5mm vertically when a 500N load is applied vertically to it 700mm
forward of the front wheel centre line and 625mm from the car centre line. The load will be applied in a
downward direction using a 50mm diameter ram and an adapter 300mm long and 150mm wide. Teams
must supply the latter when such a test is deemed necessary.
3.17.2 Bodywork may deflect no more than 10mm vertically when a 500N load is applied vertically to it 400mm
forward of the rear wheel centre line and 650mm from the car centre line. The load will be applied in a
downward direction using a 50mm diameter ram and an adapter of the same size, Teams must supply the
latter when such a test is deemed necessary.
3.17.3 Bodywork may deflect by no more than one degree horizontally when a load of 1000N is applied
simultaneously to its extremities in a rearward direction 780mm above the reference plane and 130mm
behind the rear wheel centre line.
3.17.4 In order to ensure that the requirements of Article 3.15 are respected, the FIA reserves the right to
introduce further load/deflection tests on any part of the bodywork which appears to be (or is suspected of),
moving whilst the car is in motion.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 13 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 4 : WEIGHT
4.1 Minimum weight :
The weight of the car must not be less than 605kg during the qualifying practice session and no less than
600kg at all other times during the Event.
4.2 Ballast :
Ballast can be used provided it is secured in such a way that tools are required for its removal. It must be
possible to fix seals if deemed necessary by the FIA technical delegate.
4.3 Adding during the race :
With the exception of fuel and compressed gases, no substance may be added to the car during the race.
If it becomes necessary to replace any part of the car during the race, the new part must not weigh any
more than the original part.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 14 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 5 : ENGINE
5.1 Engine specification :
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Engine capacity must not exceed 3000 cc.
5.1.3 Supercharging is forbidden.
5.1.4 All engines must have 10 cylinders and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.
5.1.5 Engines may have no more than 5 valves per cylinder.
5.2 Other means of propulsion :
5.2.1 The use of any device, other than the 3 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above, to power the car, is
5.2.2 The total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car must not exceed 300kJ, any which may be
recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.
5.3 Engine intake air :
5.3.1 Other than injection of fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, any device, system,
procedure, construction or design the purpose or effect of which is any decrease in the temperature of the
engine intake air is forbidden.
5.3.2 Other than engine sump breather gases and fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, the
spraying of any substance into the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.4 Exhaust system :
Variable geometric length exhaust systems are forbidden.
5.5 Engine materials :
5.5.1 The basic structure of the crankshaft and camshafts must be made from steel or cast iron.
5.5.2 Pistons, cylinder heads and cylinder blocks may not be composite structures which use carbon or aramid
fibre reinforcing materials.
5.6 Starting the engine :
A supplementary device temporarily connected to the car may be used to start the engine both on the grid
and in the pits.
5.7 Stall prevention systems :
If a car is equipped with a stall prevention system, and in order to avoid the possibility of a car involved in
an accident being left with the engine running, all such systems must be configured to stop the engine no
more than ten seconds after activation.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 15 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 6 : FUEL SYSTEM
6.1 Fuel tanks :
6.1.1 The fuel tank must be a single rubber bladder conforming to or exceeding the specifications of FIA/FT5-
1999, the fitting of foam within the tank however is not mandatory. A list of approved materials may be
found in the Appendix to these regulations.
6.1.2 All the fuel stored on board the car must be situated between the front face of the engine and the driver's
back when viewed in lateral projection. When establishing the front face of the engine, no parts of the fuel,
oil, water or electrical systems will be considered.
Furthermore, no fuel can be stored more than 300mm forward of the highest point at which the driver's
back makes contact with his seat. However, a maximum of 2 litres of fuel may be kept outside the survival
cell, but only that which is necessary for the normal running of the engine.
6.1.3 Fuel must not be stored more than 400mm from the longitudinal axis of the car.
6.1.4 All rubber bladders must be made by manufacturers recognised by the FIA. In order to obtain the
agreement of the FIA, the manufacturer must prove the compliance of his product with the specifications
approved by the FIA. These manufacturers must undertake to deliver to their customers exclusively tanks
complying to the approved standards.
A list of approved manufacturers may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
6.1.5 All rubber bladders shall be printed with the name of the manufacturer, the specifications to which the tank
has been manufactured and the date of manufacture.
6.1.6 No rubber bladders shall be used more than 5 years after the date of manufacture.
6.2 Fittings and piping :
6.2.1 All apertures in the fuel tank must be closed by hatches or fittings which are secured to metallic or
composite bolt rings bonded to the inside of the bladder. The total area of any such hatches or fittings
which are in contact with the fuel may not exceed 30000mm².
Bolt hole edges must be no less than 5mm from the edge of the bolt ring, hatch or fitting.
6.2.2 All fuel lines between the fuel tank and the engine must have a self sealing breakaway valve. This valve
must separate at less than 50% of the load required to break the fuel line fitting or to pull it out of the fuel
6.2.3 No lines containing fuel may pass through the cockpit.
6.2.4 All lines must be fitted in such a way that any leakage cannot result in the accumulation of fuel in the
6.3 Crushable structure :
The fuel tank must be completely surrounded by a crushable structure, which is an integral part of the
survival cell and must be able to withstand the loads required by the tests in Articles 18.2.1 and 18.3.
6.4 Fuel tank fillers :
Fuel tank fillers must not protrude beyond the bodywork. Any breather pipe connecting the fuel tank to the
atmosphere must be designed to avoid liquid leakage when the car is running and its outlet must not be
less than 250mm from the cockpit opening.
All fuel tank fillers and breathers must be designed to ensure an efficient locking action which reduces the
risk of an accidental opening following a crash impact or incomplete locking after refuelling.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 16 / 47 16 July 2004
6.5 Refuelling :
6.5.1 All refuelling during the race must be carried out at a rate no greater than 12.1 litres per second and by
using equipment which has been supplied by the FIA designated manufacturer, details concerning the
manufacturer may be found in the Appendix to these regulations. This manufacturer will be required to
supply identical refuelling systems, the complete specification of which will be available from the FIA no
later than one month prior to the first Championship Event.
Any modifications to the manufacturer's specification may only be made following written consent from the
6.5.2 A cover must be fitted over the car connector at all times when the car is running on the track. The cover
and it's attachments must be sufficiently strong to avoid accidental opening in the event of an accident.
6.5.3 Before refuelling commences, the car connector must be connected electrically to earth.
All metal parts of the refuelling system from the coupling to the supply tank must also be connected to
6.5.4 Refuelling the car on the grid may only be carried out by using an unpressurised container which is no
more than 2 metres above the ground.
6.5.5 No fuel on board the car may be more than ten degrees centigrade below ambient temperature.
6.5.6 The use of any device on board the car to decrease the temperature of the fuel is forbidden.
6.6 Fuel sampling :
6.6.1 Competitors must ensure that a one litre sample of fuel may be taken from the car at any time during the
6.6.2 All cars must be fitted with a –2 'Symetrics' male fitting in order to facilitate fuel sampling. If an electric
pump on board the car cannot be used to remove the fuel an externally connected one may be used
provided it is evident that a representative fuel sample is being taken. If an external pump is used it must
be possible to connect the FIA sampling hose to it and any hose between the car and pump must be -3 in
diameter and not exceed 2m in length. Details of the fuel sampling hose may be found in the Appendix to
6.6.3 The sampling procedure must not necessitate starting the engine or the removal of bodywork (other than
the cover over the refuelling connector).
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 17 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 7 : OIL AND COOLANT SYSTEMS
7.1 Location of oil tanks :
All oil storage tanks must be situated between the front wheel axis and the rearmost gearbox casing
longitudinally, and must be no further than the lateral extremities of the survival cell are from the
longitudinal axis of the car.
7.2 Longitudinal location of oil system :
No other part of the car containing oil may be situated behind the complete rear wheels.
7.3 Catch tank :
In order to avoid the possibility of oil being deposited on the track, the engine sump breather must vent into
the main engine air intake system.
7.4 Transversal location of oil system :
No part of the car containing oil may be more than 700mm from the longitudinal centre line of the car.
7.5 Coolant header tank :
The coolant header tank on the car must be fitted with an FIA approved pressure relief valve which is set to
a maximum of 3.75 bar gauge pressure, details of the relief valve may be found in the Appendix to these
regulations. If the car is not fitted with a header tank, an alternative position must be approved by the FIA.
7.6 Cooling systems :
The cooling systems of the engine must not intentionally make use of the latent heat of vaporisation of any
7.7 Oil and coolant lines :
7.7.1 No lines containing coolant or lubricating oil may pass through the cockpit.
7.7.2 All lines must be fitted in such a way that any leakage cannot result in the accumulation of fluid in the
7.7.3 No hydraulic fluid lines may have removable connectors inside the cockpit.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 18 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 8 : ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
8.1 Software and electronics inspection :
8.1.1 Prior to the start of each season the complete electrical system on the car must be examined and all on
board and communications software must be inspected by the FIA Technical Department.
The FIA must be notified of any changes prior to the Event at which such changes are intended to be
8.1.2 All re-programmable microprocessors must have a mechanism that allows the FIA to accurately identify
the software version loaded.
8.1.3 All electronic units containing a programmable device, and which are intended for use at an Event, must be
presented to the FIA before each Event in order that they can be identified.
8.1.4 All on-car software versions must be registered with the FIA before use.
8.1.5 The FIA must be able to test the operation of any compulsory electronic safety systems at any time during
8.2 Start systems :
8.2.1 Any system, the purpose and/or effect of which is to detect when a race start signal is given, is not
8.2.2 Whichever driver input device is used to initiate the propulsion of the car during the start of a race, a
verifiable signal must be provided which indicates it’s instant of operation.
8.3 Accident data recorders :
The recorder must be fitted and operated :
- by being rigidly attached to the survival cell using the four 7mm diameter holes provided ;
- in accordance with the instructions of the FIA ;
- symmetrically about the car centre line and with its top facing upwards ;
- with each of its 12 edges parallel to an axis of the car ;
- less than 50mm above the reference plane ;
- in a position which is normally accessible at the start and finish of an Event ;
- in order that the entire unit lies between 40% and 60% of the wheelbase of the car ;
- with its main connector facing forwards ;
- in order that its status light is visible when the driver is in the cockpit ;
- in order that the download connector is easily accessible without the need to remove bodywork.
8.4 Marshal information display :
All cars must be fitted with red, blue and yellow cockpit lights the purpose of which are to give drivers
information concerning track signals or conditions. The lights must be LEDs each with a minimum diameter
of 5mm and which are fitted in order that they are directly in the driver’s normal line of sight. Details of the
light control system, which must be fitted to every car, may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 19 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 9 : TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
9.1 Transmission types :
No transmission system may permit more than two wheels to be driven.
9.2 Clutch control :
All cars must be fitted with a means of disengaging the clutch for a minimum of fifteen minutes in the event
of the car coming to rest with the engine stopped. This system must be in working order throughout the
Event even if the main hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical systems on the car have failed.
In order that the driver or a marshal may activate the system in less than five seconds, the switch or button
which operates it must :
- face upwards and be positioned on the survival cell no more than 150mm from the car centre line ;
- be designed in order that a marshal is unable to accidentally re-engage the clutch ;
- be less than 150mm from the front of the cockpit opening ;
- be marked with a letter "N" in red inside a white circle of at least 50mm diameter with a red edge.
9.3 Gear ratios :
9.3.1 The minimum number of forward gear ratios is 4 and the maximum is 7.
9.3.2 Continuously variable transmission systems are not permitted.
9.4 Reverse gear :
All cars must have a reverse gear operable any time during the Event by the driver when the engine is
9.5 Torque transfer systems :
Any system or device the design of which is capable of transferring or diverting torque from a slower to a
faster rotating wheel is not permitted.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 20 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 10 : SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEMS
10.1 Sprung suspension :
Cars must be fitted with sprung suspension. The springing medium must not consist solely of bolts located
through flexible bushes or mountings.
There must be movement of the wheels to give suspension travel in excess of any flexibility in the
The suspension system must be so arranged that its response is consistent at all times and results only
from changes in vertical load applied to the wheels save only for movement permitted by inherent and fixed
10.2 Suspension geometry :
10.2.1 Suspension geometry must remain fixed at all times.
10.2.2 Any powered device which is capable of altering the configuration or affecting the performance of any part
of the suspension system is forbidden.
10.2.3 No adjustment may be made to the suspension system while the car is in motion.
10.3 Suspension members :
10.3.1 The cross-sections of each member of every suspension component must have an aspect ratio no greater
than 3.5:1 and be symmetrical about its major axis. All suspension components may however have
sections with an aspect ratio greater than 3.5:1, and be non-symmetrical, provided these are adjacent to
their inner and outer attachments and form no more than 25% of the total distance between the
attachments of the relevant member.
All measurements will be made perpendicular to a line drawn between the inner and outer attachments of
the relevant member.
10.3.2 No major axis of a cross section of a suspension member may subtend an angle greater than 5° to the
reference plane when measured parallel to the centre line of the car.
10.3.3 Non-structural parts of suspension members are considered bodywork.
10.3.4 In order to help prevent a wheel becoming separated in the event of all suspension members connecting it
to the car failing, two cables, each with separate attachments, must be fitted to connect each wheel/upright
assembly to the main structure of the car. The cables and their attachments must be designed in order to
help prevent a wheel making contact with the driver's head during an accident.
The length of each cable should be no longer than that required to allow normal suspension movement.
Each complete cable restraint system, including their attachments, must :
- have a minimum tensile strength of 70kN ;
- utilise flexible cables each with a diameter greater than 9.5mm ;
Each cable must also be capable of absorbing more than 900J.
However, when fitted to a car utilising a survival cell the type of which was used at an Event during the
2003 Championship season, the tensile strength of the inner and outer attachments may comply with the
2003 Technical Regulations.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 21 / 47 16 July 2004
10.4 Steering :
10.4.1 Any steering system which permits the re-alignment of more than two wheels is not permitted.
10.4.2 Power assisted steering systems may not be electronically controlled or electrically powered. No such
system may carry out any function other than reduce the physical effort required to steer the car.
10.4.3 No part of the steering wheel or column, nor any part fitted to them, may be closer to the driver than a
plane formed by the entire rear edge of the steering wheel rim.
10.4.4 The steering wheel, steering column and steering rack assembly must pass an impact test, details of the
test procedure may be found in Article 16.5.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 22 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 11 : BRAKE SYSTEM
11.1 Brake circuits and pressure distribution :
11.1.1 All cars must be equipped with only one brake system. This system must comprise solely of two separate
hydraulic circuits operated by one pedal, one circuit operating on the two front wheels and the other on the
two rear wheels. This system must be designed so that if a failure occurs in one circuit the pedal will still
operate the brakes in the other.
11.1.2 The brake system must be designed in order that the force exerted on the brake pads within each circuit
are the same at all times.
11.1.3 Any powered device which is capable of altering the configuration or affecting the performance of any part
of the brake system is forbidden.
11.1.4 Any change to, or modulation of, the brake system whilst the car is moving must be made by the drivers
direct physical input, may not be pre-set and must be under his complete control at all times.
11.2 Brake calipers :
11.2.1 All brake calipers must be made from aluminium materials with a modulus of elasticity no greater than
11.2.2 No more than two attachments may be used to secure each brake caliper to the car.
11.2.3 No more than one caliper, with a maximum of six pistons, is permitted on each wheel.
11.2.4 The section of each caliper piston must be circular.
11.3 Brake discs :
11.3.1 No more than one brake disc is permitted on each wheel.
11.3.2 All discs must have a maximum thickness of 28mm and a maximum outside diameter of 278mm.
11.3.3 No more than two brake pads are permitted on each wheel.
11.4 Air ducts :
Air ducts for the purpose of cooling the front and rear brakes shall not protrude beyond :
- a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm above the horizontal centre line of the
- a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm below the horizontal centre line of the
- a vertical plane parallel to the inner face of the wheel rim and displaced from it by 120mm toward the
centre line of the car.
Furthermore, when viewed from the side the ducts must not protrude forwards beyond the periphery of the
tyre or backwards beyond the wheel rim.
11.5 Brake pressure modulation :
11.5.1 No braking system may be designed to prevent wheels from locking when the driver applies pressure to
the brake pedal.
11.5.2 No braking system may be designed to increase the pressure in the brake calipers above that achievable
by the driver applying pressure to the pedal under static conditions.
11.6 Liquid cooling :
Liquid cooling of the brakes is forbidden.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 23 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 12 : WHEELS AND TYRES
12.1 Location :
Wheels must be external to the bodywork in plan view, with the rear aerodynamic device removed.
12.2 Number of wheels :
The number of wheels is fixed at four.
12.3 Wheel material :
All wheels must be made from an homogeneous metallic material.
12.4 Wheel dimensions :
12.4.1 Complete wheel width must lie between 305 and 355mm when fitted to the front of the car and between
365 and 380mm when fitted to the rear.
12.4.2 Complete wheel diameter must not exceed 660mm when fitted with dry-weather tyres or 670mm when
fitted with wet-weather tyres.
12.4.3 Complete wheel width and diameter will be measured horizontally at axle height when fitted with new tyres
inflated to 1.4 bar.
12.4.4 Wheel bead diameter must lie between 328 and 332mm.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 24 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 13 : COCKPIT
13.1 Cockpit opening :
13.1.1 In order to ensure that the opening giving access to the cockpit is of adequate size, the template shown in
Drawing 2 will be inserted into the survival cell and bodywork.
During this test the steering wheel, steering column, seat and all padding required by Articles 14.6.1-6
(including fixings), may be removed and :
- the template must be held horizontal and lowered vertically from above the car until its lower edge is
525mm above the reference plane ;
- referring to Drawing 2, the edge of the template which lies on the line d-e must be no less than
1800mm behind the line A-A shown in Drawing 5.
Any measurements made from the cockpit entry template (when referred to in Articles 13.1.3,
14.3.3,15.2.2, 15.4.5, 15.4.6, 15.5.4, 16.3 and 18.4), must also be made whilst the template is held in this
13.1.2 The forward extremity of the cockpit opening, even if structural and part of the survival cell, must be at
least 50mm in front of the steering wheel.
13.1.3 The driver must be able to enter and get out of the cockpit without it being necessary to open a door or
remove any part of the car other than the steering wheel. When seated normally, the driver must be facing
forwards and the rearmost part of his crash helmet may be no more than 125mm forward of the rear edge
of the cockpit entry template.
13.1.4 From his normal seating position, with all seat belts fastened and whilst wearing his usual driving
equipment, the driver must be able to remove the steering wheel and get out of the car within 5 seconds
and then replace the steering wheel in a total of 10 seconds.
For this test, the position of the steered wheels will be determined by the FIA technical delegate and after
the steering wheel has been replaced steering control must be maintained.
13.2 Steering wheel :
The steering wheel must be fitted with a quick release mechanism operated by pulling a concentric flange
installed on the steering column behind the wheel.
13.3 Internal cross section :
13.3.1 A free vertical cross section, which allows the outer template shown in Drawing 3 to be passed vertically
through the cockpit to a point 100mm behind the face of the rearmost pedal when in the inoperative
position, must be maintained over its entire length.
The only things which may encroach on this area are the steering wheel and any padding that is required
by Article 14.6.7.
13.3.2 A free vertical cross section, which allows the inner template shown in Drawing 3 to be passed vertically
through the cockpit to a point 100mm behind the face of rearmost pedal when in the inoperative position,
must be maintained over its entire length.
The only thing which may encroach on this area is the steering wheel.
13.3.3 The driver, seated normally with his seat belts fastened and with the steering wheel removed must be able
to raise both legs together so that his knees are past the plane of the steering wheel in the rearward
direction. This action must not be prevented by any part of the car.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 25 / 47 16 July 2004
13.4 Position of the driver’s feet :
13.4.1 The survival cell must extend from behind the fuel tank in a rearward direction to a point at least 300mm in
front of the driver's feet, with his feet resting on the pedals and the pedals in the inoperative position.
13.4.2 When he is seated normally, the soles of the driver's feet, resting on the pedals in the inoperative position,
must not be situated forward of the front wheel centre line.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 26 / 47 16 July 2004
ARTICLE 14 : SAFETY EQUIPMENT
14.1 Fire extinguishers :
14.1.1 All cars must be fitted with a fire extinguishing system which will discharge into the cockpit and into the
14.1.2 Any extinguishant listed in the Appendix to the regulations is permitted.
14.1.3 The quantity of extinguishant may vary according to the type of extinguishant used, a list of quantities may
be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
14.1.4 When operated, the fire extinguishing system must discharge 95% of its contents at a constant pressure in
no less than 10 seconds and no more than 30 seconds.
If more than one container with extinguishant is fitted, they must be released simultaneously.
14.1.5 Each pressure vessel must be equipped with a means of checking its pressure which may vary according
to the type of extinguishant used. A list of pressures may be found in the Appendix to the regulations.
14.1.6 The following information must be visible on each container with extinguishant :
a) Type of extinguishant
b) Weight or volume of the extinguishant
c) Date the container must be checked which must be no more than two years after the date of filling.
14.1.7 All parts of the extinguishing system must be situated within the survival cell and all extinguishing
equipment must withstand fire.
14.1.8 Any triggering system having its own source of energy is permitted, provided it is possible to operate all
extinguishers should the main electrical circuits of the car fail.
The driver must be able to trigger the extinguishing system manually when seated normally with his safety
belts fastened and the steering wheel in place.
Furthermore, a means of triggering from the outside must be combined with the circuit breaker switch
described in Article 14.2.2. It must be marked with a letter "E" in red inside a white circle of at least 100mm
diameter with a red edge.
14.1.9 The system must work in any position, even when the car is inverted.
14.1.10 All extinguisher nozzles must be suitable for the extinguishant and be installed in such a way that they are
not directly pointed at the driver.
14.2 Master switch :
14.2.1 The driver, when seated normally with the safety belts fastened and the steering wheel in place, must be
able to cut off the electrical circuits to the ignition, all fuel pumps and the rear light by means of a spark
proof circuit breaker switch.
This switch must be located on the dashboard and must be clearly marked by a symbol showing a red
spark in a white edged blue triangle.
14.2.2 There must also be an exterior switch, with a horizontal handle, which is capable of being operated from a
distance by a hook. This switch must be situated at the base of the main roll over structure on the right
14.3 Rear view mirrors :
14.3.1 All cars must have at least two mirrors mounted so that the driver has visibility to the rear and both sides of
14.3.2 The reflective surface of each mirror must be at least 150mm wide, this being maintained over a height of
at least 50mm. Additionally, each corner may have a radius no greater than 10mm.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 27 / 47 16 July 2004
14.3.3 No part of the reflective surface may be less than 250mm from the car centre line or more than 750mm
from the rear of the cockpit entry template.
14.3.4 The FIA technical delegate must be satisfied by a practical demonstration that the driver, when seated
normally, can clearly define following vehicles.
For this purpose, the driver shall be required to identify any letter or number, 150mm high and 100mm
wide, placed anywhere on boards behind the car, the positions of which are detailed below :
Height : From 400mm to 1000mm from the ground.
Width : 2000mm either side of the centre line of the car.
Position : 10m behind the rear axle line of the car.
14.4 Safety belts
It is mandatory to wear two shoulder straps, one abdominal strap and two straps between the legs. These
straps must be securely fixed to the car and must comply with FIA standard 8853/98.
14.5 Rear light :
All cars must have a red light in working order throughout the Event which :
- has been manufactured as specified in the Appendix to these regulations ;
- faces rearwards at 90° to the car centre line and the reference plane ;
- is clearly visible from the rear ;
- is not mounted more than 100mm from the car centre line ;
- is mounted between 325mm and 400mm above the reference plane ;
- is no less than 450mm behind the rear wheel centre line measured parallel to the reference plane ;
- can be switched on by the driver when seated normally in the car.
The three measurements above will be taken to the centre of the rear face of the light unit.
14.6 Headrests and head protection :
14.6.1 All cars must be equipped with three areas of padding for the driver’s head which :
- are so arranged that they can be removed from the car as one part ;
- are located by two horizontal pegs behind the driver' head and two fixings, which are clearly indicated
and easily removable without tools, at the front corners ;
- are made from a material which is suitable for the relevant ambient air temperature, details of approved
materials and the temperature bands in which they should be used may be found in the Appendix to
these regulations ;
- are covered, in all areas where the driver’s head is likely to make contact, with two plies of Aramid
fibre/epoxy resin composite pre-preg material in plain weave 60gsm fabric with a cured resin content of
50% (+/-5%) by weight ;
- are positioned so as to be the first point of contact for the driver's helmet in the event of an impact
projecting his head towards them during an accident.
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 28 / 47 16 July 2004
14.6.2 The first area of padding for the driver’s head must be positioned behind him and be between 75mm and
90mm thick over an area of at least 40000mm².
14.6.3 The two further areas of padding for the driver’s head must be positioned directly alongside each side of
his helmet. The upper surfaces of these areas of padding must be at least as high as the survival cell over
their entire length.
Each area of padding must be between 75mm and 90mm thick over an area of at least 25000mm² and
may have a radius of 10mm along it's upper inboard edge. When calculating their area, any part which is
greater than 75mm thick and which lies between the front face of the rear area of padding and the forward
most part of the driver's helmet whilst he is seated normally, will be taken into account (area 'B' in Drawing
4). The thickness will be measured perpendicular to the car centre line.
14.6.4 Forward of the side areas of padding further cockpit padding must be provided on each side of the cockpit
rim. The purpose of the additional padding is to afford protection to the driver's head in the event of an
oblique frontal impact and must therefore be made from the same material as the other three areas of
These extensions must :
- be symmetrically positioned about the car centre line and a continuation of the side areas of padding ;
- be positioned with their upper surfaces at least as high as the survival cell over their entire length;
- have a radius on their upper inboard edge no greater than 10mm ;
- be positioned in order that the distance between the two is no less than 360mm ;
- be as high as practicable within the constraints of driver comfort.
14.6.5 All of the padding described above must be so installed that if movement of the driver's head, in any
expected trajectory during an accident, were to compress the foam fully at any point, his helmet would not
make contact with any structural part of the car.
Furthermore, for the benefit of rescue crews all of the padding described above must be installed using the
system described in the Appendix to these regulations. The method of removal must also be clearly
14.6.6 No part of the padding described above may obscure sight of any part of the driver's helmet when he is
seated normally and viewed from directly above the car.
14.6.7 In order to minimise the risk of leg injury during an accident, additional areas of padding must be fitted
each side of, and above, the driver’s legs.
These areas of padding must :
- be made from a material described in the Appendix to these regulations ;
- be no less than 25mm thick over their entire area ;
- cover the area situated between points lying 50mm behind the centre of the point at which the second
roll structure test is carried out and100mm behind the face of the rearmost pedal when in the
inoperative position, as shown in Drawing 4 ;
- cover the area above the line A-A shown in Drawing 3.
14.7 Wheel retention :
All cars, whilst under their own power, must be fitted with devices which will retain any wheel in the event
of it coming loose.
After the wheel nut is fastened, these devices must be manually fitted in a separate action to that of
securing the wheel nut.
14.8 Seat fixing and removal :
Draft 2005 F1 Technical Regulations 29 / 47 16 July 2004
14.8.1 In order that an injured driver may be removed from the car in his seat following an accident, all cars must
be fitted with a seat which, if it is secured, must be done so with no more than two bolts. If bolts are used
they must :
- be clearly indicated and easily accessible to rescue crews ;
- be fitted vertically ;
- be remo
2005-06-02 01:25:43 補充：
- 5 years ago
- Anonymous6 years ago
- Anonymous6 years ago
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- Anonymous2 decades ago
F1規則 所有參加F1大賽的車手，都是經過千挑萬選的世界車壇的精英。每一位車手在躋身F1大賽前，都必須經過多個級次的選拔，例如小型車賽、三級方程式(F3)車賽等等，堪稱過五關、斬六將，而要成為世界冠軍，更非易事。他必須身經百戰，集賽車技術、天賦及斗志於一身。 根據FISA的有關規定，每年，全世界能有資格駕駛世界F1賽車的車手不超過100名。所有駕駛F1賽車的選手，都必須持有FISA簽發的『超級駕駛執照』；每年只有少數的優秀車手有資格參加決賽。 F1大賽每年都要選擇地理條件迥然不同的16個賽場。他們有的現在高原上，那裡空氣稀薄，用以考驗車手的身體素質非；有的則是街道串成的賽道，那裡路面相對狹窄曲折，車手弄不好就會撞車；有的賽車場就顯得路面寬闊，但也有上下坡考驗車手的技術；還有的賽車場建在樹木蔥郁的森林中，那裡跑道起伏大，車手很難控制賽車。由於賽車經常出現意外，FISA要求所有主辦國的賽車場必須有足夠的草地緩衝區。各賽場的救護人員也必須分布在全場的每一個角落，爭取在出事的一剎那，跑進現場，進行搶救。 每一賽車都需在車賽前三天進行試車，然後根據試車圈速排列起跑位次。通常在試車的時候，共有28-30輛賽車參加計時，但最終只取前26輛賽車參加比賽。 正式比賽開始，各車手按排位從相繼不遠的起跑位置出發。進入前６名可得分，計算法如下： 名次 1 2 3 4 5 6 得分 10 6 4 3 2 1 通過各賽站積累計分，方可決出本年度的世界冠軍，FISA規定，如某站比賽發生意外，完成75％的賽程即告終止，則各車手得分減半，如第一名只得4.5分，而第六名只得0.5分。