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嘉斌 asked in 科學化學 · 2 decades ago




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  • SAM
    Lv 5
    2 decades ago
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    用『lindane composition toxic people dead』這幾個關鍵字去請教google大神後…








    October 20, 2000

    Pesticide Action Network Updates Service

    In early September, California's Governor Gray Davis signed a bill

    prohibiting the sale or use of the pesticide lindane for treatment of lice

    and scabies. The bill will take effect in California on January 1, 2002.

    Between 1972 and 1994, use of lindane to treat lice and scabies in U.S.

    children resulted in 88 reported cases of neurotoxicity and six deaths. The

    National Pediculosis (headlice) Association recently established a database

    to track "adverse event" reports related to use of lindane to treat headlice

    in the United States. In the first 24 months, more than 500 events were


    Lindane is one of the few notorious DDT-style chlorinated pesticides to

    remain in widespread use in both industrialized and developing countries. It

    has been on PAN International's list of Dirty Dozen pesticides since 1985.

    Officials in Canada, the U.S. and Mexico are considering a plan to "reduce

    or eliminate" use of the pesticide in the North America region, and European

    officials recently banned lindane's use in agriculture and garden products.

    Documented health effects of exposure to the pesticide include hormone

    disruption, dizziness, seizures, nervous system damage, immune system damage

    and birth defects. Lindane is also a suspected carcinogen with possible

    links to breast cancer incidence, and has been found in breast milk and

    blood samples throughout the world.

    The economic costs of addressing lindane's environmental contamination are

    tremendous. In pressing for the California ban for public health uses, the

    L.A. County Sanitation Districts estimated the average cost to clean up

    lindane contamination at $250,000 per ounce, or $4,000 for the lindane

    rinsed from a single head lice treatment. Based on the federal benchmark of

    allowable lindane contamination (19 parts per trillion), a single use of

    lindane shampoo contaminates six million gallons of water, and the total

    lindane rinsed into California's water system each year contaminates five

    trillion gallons.

    In addition to control of lice and scabies with medicated lotions and

    shampoos, common uses of lindane include seed and wood treatment and

    insecticidal spray for a number of food crops. In many countries, lindane is

    also available for home use for control of fleas, ticks, ants and other

    insects. While lindane use continues in both industrialized and developing

    regions, all uses have been banned in at least 34 countries and at least 28

    additional countries have severely restricted its use.

    In early 1999, a confidential EU report recommending the immediate

    withdrawal of lindane from the market was leaked to European pesticide

    activists. The report, produced and circulated to EU members by the Austrian

    Ministry of Agriculture, pointed to the lack of crucial health and

    environmental data on lindane which was not collected before its approval in

    the 1940s and is still not available. A lack of adequate data on

    carcinogenicity was cited as a particular concern, especially given emerging

    evidence of rising breast cancer rates in areas of the United Kingdom (UK)

    where lindane use is very high.

    In response to this report and to continued pressure from European

    activists, the EU's Standing Committee on Plant Health voted in July of this

    year to ban most uses of lindane in Europe. The ban, which will come into

    effect in 12-18 months, covers all agricultural and gardening applications

    of lindane. Use in domestic products such as ant killer will continue to be


    According to a 1997 report from the Northern Contaminants Program, lindane

    and its isomers are found more often than any other organochlorine in the

    Arctic atmosphere and marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments.

    Lindane is not, however, on the initial list of 12 persistent organic

    pollutants (POPs) slated for global elimination under the international

    treaty to control POPs. This despite the fact that the pesticide easily

    meets the POPs criteria of persistence, bioaccumulation, long range

    transport and toxicity.

    If the North America region develops an effective and aggressive Regional

    Action Plan to complement the ban of most uses in Europe, momentum will be

    strong for a worldwide ban of lindane. The POPs elimination treaty, which is

    scheduled to be signed by 120 or more countries early next year, could

    provide the vehicle for a global lindane ban. Groups around the world

    involved in the International POPs Elimination Network are working hard to

    ensure that the treaty is designed to allow the timely addition of

    pesticides such as lindane to the list of chemicals slated for global


    Sources: "Going, Going, Gone? Lindane Moves Closer to Elimination," Global

    Pesticide Campaigner, August 2000.

    Source(s): google大神
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