- SAMLv 52 decades agoFavorite Answer
用『lindane composition toxic people dead』這幾個關鍵字去請教google大神後…
PANUPS: PARTIAL LINDANE BANS IN CALIFORNIA AND EUROPE
October 20, 2000
Pesticide Action Network Updates Service
In early September, California's Governor Gray Davis signed a bill
prohibiting the sale or use of the pesticide lindane for treatment of lice
and scabies. The bill will take effect in California on January 1, 2002.
Between 1972 and 1994, use of lindane to treat lice and scabies in U.S.
children resulted in 88 reported cases of neurotoxicity and six deaths. The
National Pediculosis (headlice) Association recently established a database
to track "adverse event" reports related to use of lindane to treat headlice
in the United States. In the first 24 months, more than 500 events were
Lindane is one of the few notorious DDT-style chlorinated pesticides to
remain in widespread use in both industrialized and developing countries. It
has been on PAN International's list of Dirty Dozen pesticides since 1985.
Officials in Canada, the U.S. and Mexico are considering a plan to "reduce
or eliminate" use of the pesticide in the North America region, and European
officials recently banned lindane's use in agriculture and garden products.
Documented health effects of exposure to the pesticide include hormone
disruption, dizziness, seizures, nervous system damage, immune system damage
and birth defects. Lindane is also a suspected carcinogen with possible
links to breast cancer incidence, and has been found in breast milk and
blood samples throughout the world.
The economic costs of addressing lindane's environmental contamination are
tremendous. In pressing for the California ban for public health uses, the
L.A. County Sanitation Districts estimated the average cost to clean up
lindane contamination at $250,000 per ounce, or $4,000 for the lindane
rinsed from a single head lice treatment. Based on the federal benchmark of
allowable lindane contamination (19 parts per trillion), a single use of
lindane shampoo contaminates six million gallons of water, and the total
lindane rinsed into California's water system each year contaminates five
In addition to control of lice and scabies with medicated lotions and
shampoos, common uses of lindane include seed and wood treatment and
insecticidal spray for a number of food crops. In many countries, lindane is
also available for home use for control of fleas, ticks, ants and other
insects. While lindane use continues in both industrialized and developing
regions, all uses have been banned in at least 34 countries and at least 28
additional countries have severely restricted its use.
In early 1999, a confidential EU report recommending the immediate
withdrawal of lindane from the market was leaked to European pesticide
activists. The report, produced and circulated to EU members by the Austrian
Ministry of Agriculture, pointed to the lack of crucial health and
environmental data on lindane which was not collected before its approval in
the 1940s and is still not available. A lack of adequate data on
carcinogenicity was cited as a particular concern, especially given emerging
evidence of rising breast cancer rates in areas of the United Kingdom (UK)
where lindane use is very high.
In response to this report and to continued pressure from European
activists, the EU's Standing Committee on Plant Health voted in July of this
year to ban most uses of lindane in Europe. The ban, which will come into
effect in 12-18 months, covers all agricultural and gardening applications
of lindane. Use in domestic products such as ant killer will continue to be
According to a 1997 report from the Northern Contaminants Program, lindane
and its isomers are found more often than any other organochlorine in the
Arctic atmosphere and marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments.
Lindane is not, however, on the initial list of 12 persistent organic
pollutants (POPs) slated for global elimination under the international
treaty to control POPs. This despite the fact that the pesticide easily
meets the POPs criteria of persistence, bioaccumulation, long range
transport and toxicity.
If the North America region develops an effective and aggressive Regional
Action Plan to complement the ban of most uses in Europe, momentum will be
strong for a worldwide ban of lindane. The POPs elimination treaty, which is
scheduled to be signed by 120 or more countries early next year, could
provide the vehicle for a global lindane ban. Groups around the world
involved in the International POPs Elimination Network are working hard to
ensure that the treaty is designed to allow the timely addition of
pesticides such as lindane to the list of chemicals slated for global
Sources: "Going, Going, Gone? Lindane Moves Closer to Elimination," Global
Pesticide Campaigner, August 2000.Source(s): google大神