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陳小小 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago


The teaching of English certainly is one of the hot topics of the day. Millions of people in Taiwan, old and young, are learning to speak and write English, which Premier Yu Shyi-kun wants to make a "quasi- or semi-official" language of the country in about five years. Forgive us for using that convoluted wording within the two double quotation marks, because it is our humble attempt to translate his "zhun guan fang yu yan" -- forgive us again for not using the quasi-official tongyong pinyin but using the much more popular hanyu pinyin -- the exact meaning of whose first word, alas, eludes us. Perhaps the premier meant a second "official language (guan fang yu yan)" when he mouthed that enigmatic five-syllable phrase, albeit the Republic of China on Taiwan has no law designating a -- or the first -- national or official language. Many of these students of English and their teachers alike ask one question which Father Daniel J. Bauer paraphrased in his column of our paper on December 7 as: "Which English is best to study and teach in Taiwan?" They want to know now, for time is running short: all the students will have to have a working command of English in less than half a decade, when and if Mr. Yu is still around as premier to proclaim it as a second or quasi- or semi-official language of Taiwan. Of course a country can pass a law proclaiming a dialect or even a foreign language as its national or official language. But that is not the way it should be. A national or official language is a natural evolution. It takes time -- maybe hundreds of years -- to evolve a standard one out of various dialects that is finally accepted by all as their national language. English is made a national and official language in the Philippines, India and other former British colonies except those English speaking ones like Australia, Canada and New Zealand simply because it has long become a lingua franca or a common language. English is a lingua franca of the world today. Many linguists would like to call it a universal language, whose artificial predecessors like Esperanto and Ido have failed to achieve that status. English has become a universal language by evolution. And that evolution has been completed, thanks by and large to the post-war worldwide spread of American influences since 1945. So far as the number of native speakers of English is concerned, the United States leads the world. India has more people than the United States, but to nine out of every ten Indians, English is not their mother tongue. In any language, which may have a number of dialects -- as many as hundreds in China -- the variety the majority of speakers use tends to become the standard. Mandarin has become standard Chinese -- and the national as well as official language -- because it, with slight and mutually intelligible variations, is spoken by practically all the people in all provinces north of the Yangtze River. Our answer to Father Bauer's paraphrased question therefore is: American English. Linguists may consider American English just a dialect of the English language, a regional variety distinguished by features of vocabulary and pronunciation from other local or regional varieties of which no one variety is standard. But that does not rub off any shine from American English as the foremost example of the current lingua franca or universal language. We purposely drop grammar as one of the distinguishing features, because generally all "dialects" of English are syntactically identical. Diction and pronunciation vary from dialect to dialect. But no dialect is superior, or inferior for that matter, to any other. To a cockney speaker in London, the American "rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain" may sound ridiculous - for he pronounces the sentence "rine in Spine falls minely on the pline" changing every "ei' diphthong into "ai." Fred Astaire, in an interview with Robert Frost in London before he died, said he did not understand a word of English when he first visited the British capital. An Australian rugby team manager visited Taipei many years ago and told his shocked hosts (h)e "kaim ia to die (came here today)" to see his boys "ply a gaim (play a game)" with Taiwan rugby players. Even in American English, words are sometimes pronounced differently from region to region. There is the Southern drawl, while bird is pronounced boid and oyster, erster in parts of New York City. Inasmuch as pronunciation is concerned, teachers of English here, while sticking to Midwest Standard American English, can tell their students there are variations. Lexicon, the vocabulary of a language or of individual speakers, raises less difficulty. American TESL (teaching of English as a second language) and TEFL (teaching of English as a foreign language) programs provide more than enough help, while we believe teachers of English had better adopt American Journalese, the style of language characteristic of newspapers. H. W. Fowler, the celebrated author of "The King's English" and "The Concise Oxford Dictionary," calls the journalists "murderers of English" in his "Modern English Usage," but no one can deny Journalese has long become the spearhead of English as the world's one and only universal language. Its simple, informal, and usually loose sentence structure, together with the frequent use of cliches, has made it easier for English readers all over the world to understand confused, complicated and incomprehensive news events. Besides, it is Journalese that often upgrades slang to formal English. "Long time no see" was a slang expression, a literal translation of "hao jiu bu jian" in Chinese. The pidgin English, introduced by American journalists, is now used often in an exchange of formal greetings among native English speakers.

4 Answers

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer


    很多學習英文的人跟教學者都有一個相同的問題,那就是如同Father Daniel J. Bauer在本報12月7號的專欄所轉達的:「到底在台灣學習或教授哪一種英文是最好的?」他們現在就要知道這個問題的答案,因為如果游院長屆時連任且繼續提倡以英語為「準官方語言」,那麼在短短五年內,所有的學生都必需要能夠自如的使用英文。


    在菲律賓、印度、以及一些早期英國殖民地國家 (除了澳洲、加拿大、紐西蘭等英語系國家),英語成為了他們的官方語言,只因為英語在長期已演變成當地共通的語言。

    英語是現今全球的共通語言。很多語言學者稱英語為國際語言。在那之前,人為創制的兩個國際語言─ Esperanto和Ido都沒有成功地造就如同今天英語在國際間的地位。而英語是透過演變才成為國際語言的。


    對於 Father Bauer's 轉達的問題,我們的回答是:「美語」。語言學家可能將美語定位為英語的其中一支方言。方言因地域不同而有其特殊單字和發音,每個地方都不相同,但是卻沒有一個標準,但是這卻不讓最早舉例的國際語言─ 美語失去光芒。 我們刻意將文法排除在方言間的差異中,因為通常來說英語的方言有一模一樣的句子結構。

    每個方言的措辭和發音都不一樣,但是沒有一個方言特別優越過或是不如其他的方言。對一個自豪的倫敦人來說,美式說法, "rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain," 聽起來就很無稽,因為他會唸成, "rine in Spine falls minely on the pline." 把所有 "ei"發的音變成"ai". Fred Astaire在生前跟Robert Frost在倫敦的一個訪問中表示,當他第一次造訪英國首都時,他聽不懂一句英文。多年前,澳洲的橄欖球經紀人造訪台北,跟吃驚的地主說,他為了看他的球員們跟台灣的球員們"ply a gaim (play a game)" "kaim ia to die (came here today)." 有時候就連美式英語都因地區不同而有不同的發音。以美國南方口音來說,bird 被唸成boid,oyster在紐約某些地方被唸成erster. 假如要注意到發音的部份,美語教師可以在以西岸中部的標準發音教學的同時,對其學生註明其他不同發音的存在。

    詞藻─一個語言涵蓋的單字或個人所使用的單字,能夠將困難度降低。當我們相信,其他的英語教師更加慣用類似報章的語法的同時,美國的TESL(英語為第二語言教學)和TEFL(托福)在這方面提供了足夠的幫助。"The King's English"和"The Concise Oxford Dictionary"名作家H. W. Fowler在他的"Modern English Usage"中把報章記著稱為「英文的殺手」。可是沒有人能否認報章的語法是英文這個唯一國際語言的先鋒。它的簡單、非正式、不拘謹的句子架構,以及不時出現的陳腔濫調,都幫住全球的英文讀者更輕鬆地閱讀複雜深奧的時事新聞。

    此外,通常都是報章語法將俗語晉升為正式英文的。"Long time no see"這個俗語是由中文的好久不見翻譯而來。這個由美國記者引薦的混合英文現在經常出現在以英語為母語的人之間的正式問候。

    2005-05-27 15:23:11 補充:


    2005-05-29 13:44:54 補充:


    Source(s): 我...翻到後來覺得廢話連篇...=( 好累
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  • Anonymous
    6 years ago

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  • 2 decades ago


    2005-05-27 16:59:42 補充:

    Caroline ...多謝你

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago


    2005-05-26 23:24:38 補充:

    英語教學一定是天的熱門話題的當中一個。成千上萬人在臺灣, 老和年輕, 學會講和寫英語, Premier 于·Shyi-kun 要做"半或半官方" 語言國家在大約五年。原諒我們至於使用, 複雜的字詞在二個雙重引號之內, 因為它是我們謙遜的企圖翻譯他的"zhun guan 犬齒于·嚴" -- 再原諒我們為不是使用半官方tongyong pinyin 但使用更加普遍的hanyu pinyin -- 第一個詞的確切的意思, 呀, 逃避我們。或麥`理意味第二種"官方語言(guan 犬齒于·嚴)" 當他裝腔作勢地說了那個神秘五音節詞組, 雖然中華民國在臺灣沒有法律選定a -- 或一-- 全國或官方語言。

    釵h英語和他們的老師的這些學生問一個問題哪個父親丹尼爾·J. Bauer 釋義了在我們的紙他的專欄在12月7 日和: "英語是最佳學習和教在臺灣?" 他們想要現在知道, 為了時間缺乏: 所有學生在不到一半內將必須有英語一個運作的命令每十年, 何時和如果于先生仍然是一樣premier 宣告它作為臺灣秒鐘或quasi- 或半官方語言。

    當然國家可能通過法律宣告方言甚至一種外語作為它的全國或官方語言。但那不是方式它應該是。一種全國或官方語言是自然演變。需要時間-- 可能上百的幾年-- 演變一標準一個出於各種各樣的方言由所有最後收下作為他們的國家語言。英語簡單地使一種全國和官方語言在菲律賓、印度和其它前英國的殖民地除了那些英文部分像澳洲、加拿大和紐西蘭因為這長期成為了混合語或共同語言。英語今天是世界的混合語。釵h語言學家會想稱它一個共同語言, 人為前輩喜歡世界語並且Ido 未達到那狀態。英語由演變成為了一個共同語言。並且那演變被完成了, 感謝基本上對美國影響戰後全世界傳播自1945 年以來。至於英語說母語的人的數量有關, 美國帶領世界。印度比美國有更多人民, 但到九出於每十個印地安人, 英語不是他們的母語。用任一種語言, 也釵酗@定數量的方言-- 和上百一樣多在中國-- 品種多數報告人用途傾向於成為標準。國語有成為的標準漢語-- 和國民並且官方語言-- 因為它, 以輕微和相互可理解變異, 由實際所有人民講了話在長江的所有省北部。

    我們的對父親Bauer 的被釋義的問題的答復是因此: 美國英語。語言學家也頂{為美國英語正義英語的方言, 地方品種由詞彙量特點區別和發音與品種不是標準的其它地方或地方品種。但那不摩擦任何亮光從美國英語作為當前的混合語或共同語言的首要例子。我們故意下降語法作為區別的特點的當中一個, 因為所有"方言" 英語一般是語法上相同的。措詞和發音變化從方言到方言。但方言不是優越, 或下等就此而言, 對些其他。對一位倫敦佬報告人在倫敦, 美國"雨在西班牙跌倒主要平原" 也傅弘_來可笑- 為他minely 宣判"rine 在脊椎秋天內在pline" 改變每個"ei ' 雙元音入" ai 。" 弗雷德·Astaire, 在與Robert Frost 的一次採訪在倫敦在他死了之前, 說他沒有瞭解英語的詞當他第一次參觀了英國的資本。澳大利亞橄欖球隊經理被參觀的臺北釵h歲月前和告訴他的震驚主人(h)e "kaim ia 死(今天這裡來)" 看他的男孩"使用gaim (演奏賽)" 與臺灣橄欖球球員。在美國英語, 詞有時發音與區域不同對區域。有南部的drawl, 當鳥是發出音的boid 和牡蠣, erster 在紐約的部份。由於發音有關, 英語的老師這裡, 當黏附對中西部標準美國英語, 能告訴他們的學生那裡是變異。詞典, 語言的詞彙量或各自的報告人, 提高較少困難。美國TESL (英語教學作為第二種語言) 並且TEFL (英語教學作為一種外語) 節目比足夠的幫助提供更多, 當我們相信英語的老師有更好採取美國Journalese, 語言樣式典型報紙。H. W. Fowler 、"國王的English 的" 著名的作者和"簡明的牛津字典," 電話新聞工作者"兇手英語" 在他的"現代英國用法," 但沒人能deny Journalese 長期成為了英語矛頭作為世界的僅有的共同語言。它簡單, 不拘形式, 和通常寬鬆句子結構, 與對鉛板的頻繁用途一起, 使它容易對英國讀者全世界瞭解迷茫, 複雜和incomprehensive 新聞事件。其外, 這是經常升級俗話到正式英語的Journalese 。"久時間沒有看見" 是俗話表示, "郝jiu bu 的直譯jian" 用中文。pidgin 英國, 由American 新聞工作者介紹, 經常現在被使用在正式問候交換在當地講英語者之中。

    Source(s): 網路翻譯軟體 可是翻出來怪怪的 自己在對一下 錯誤率有四十吧
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