- jenLv 42 decades agoFavorite Answer
2. 檸檬酸（Citric Acid）
3. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has established a system of rules to assign names to organic compounds based on the # and type of atoms in the molecule and how they arranged.
Functional Groups: an atom or a group of atoms that replace one or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon chain
1) Halides: organic compounds which contain one or more Group 17 atoms attached to a hydrocarbon chain
2) Alcohols: organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms on a hydrocarbon chain have been replaced by a hydroxyl group (-OH)
IUPAC naming: Replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with -ol
* Show the # of the carbon atom in the hydrocarbon radical in which the -OH group is attached. (3 or more carbons)
Primary Alcohol: the -OH group is found on an end carbon in a chain
Secondary Alcohol: the -OH group is attached to a carbon atom that is bonded to 2 other carbon atoms.
Ｔertiary Alcohol: the -OH group is attached to a carbon atom that is bonded to three other carbon atoms
3) Organic Acids or Carboxylic Acids: organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end of a hydrocarbon chain
IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "oic" and the word "acid"
1st member: methanoic acid
2nd member: ethanoic acid
4) Aldehydes: organic compound in which a carbonyl group (-CHO) is located at the end of a hydrocarbon chain
IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "al"
1st member: methanal
ex. CH3CH2COH propanal
5) Ketones: organic compound in which the carbonyl group (-CO-) is located within the hydrocarbon chain
IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "one"
* use a # to indicate the location of the oxygen*
ex. CH3COCH3 2-propanone
6) Ethers: organic compound in which an oxygen atom is position between 2 carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain
IUPAC naming: name the two radical groups on either side of the oxygen and follow with the word ether.
ex. CH3-O-CH3 dimethyl ether
CH3CH2-O-CH3 ethyl methyl ether
CH3CH2CH2-O-CH3 methyl propyl ether
7) Esters: An organic compound that results fro a reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol
IUPAC naming: name the portion from the alcohol first by removing the "-anol" and replacing it with the ending "-yl"; name the portion from the carboxylic acid by changing the "-ic acid" to "-ate"
ex. C5H11OH + CH3COOH → CH3COOC5H11 + H20
pentanol + ethanoic acid → pentyl ethanoate + H2O
8) Amines: organic compound derived from ammonia by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by hydrocarbon radicals
IUPAC naming: for simple amines, there is only one attached hydrocarbon group. to name simple amines, replace the -e of the hydrocarbon name with the ending "-amine". Indicate the location of the nitrogen group with a #
ex. CH3CH2NH2 ethanamine
9) Amides: an organic compound that contains the carboxyl group (-CO-) and an amine group (looks like a combination of a ketone and amine)
IUPAC naming: drop -e and add "-amide"
ex. CH3CH2CONH2 propanamideSource(s): notes