Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 科學化學 · 2 decades ago

IUPAC命名法

1. 戴奧辛的IUPAC命名法(中英文)???

2. 檸檬酸,COOHCHOHCOOH的IUPAC命名法(中英文)???

3. IUPAC命名的步驟???

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  • jen
    Lv 4
    2 decades ago
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    2. 檸檬酸(Citric Acid)

    檸檬酸的分子式為H3C6H5O 7‧H2O

    結構式

    CH2-COOH

    |

    HO-C-COOH‧H2O,分子量等於210.14。

    |

    CH2-COOH

    檸檬酸是三元酸,並含有一個醇基(羥基),它是3-羥基-3-羧基戊二酸-[1 ,5]

    http://www.dfmg.com.tw/dasp/dfaux/tb22-4-2-1p.htm

    3. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has established a system of rules to assign names to organic compounds based on the # and type of atoms in the molecule and how they arranged.

    Functional Groups: an atom or a group of atoms that replace one or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon chain

    1) Halides: organic compounds which contain one or more Group 17 atoms attached to a hydrocarbon chain

    R-X

    R= hydrocarbon

    X= halogen

    2) Alcohols: organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms on a hydrocarbon chain have been replaced by a hydroxyl group (-OH)

    R-OH

    Monohydroxy Alcohols:

    IUPAC naming: Replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with -ol

    * Show the # of the carbon atom in the hydrocarbon radical in which the -OH group is attached. (3 or more carbons)

    Primary Alcohol: the -OH group is found on an end carbon in a chain

    ex. RCH2-OH

    CH3CH2OH

    Secondary Alcohol: the -OH group is attached to a carbon atom that is bonded to 2 other carbon atoms.

    Tertiary Alcohol: the -OH group is attached to a carbon atom that is bonded to three other carbon atoms

    3) Organic Acids or Carboxylic Acids: organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end of a hydrocarbon chain

    IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "oic" and the word "acid"

    ex.

    1st member: methanoic acid

    2nd member: ethanoic acid

    4) Aldehydes: organic compound in which a carbonyl group (-CHO) is located at the end of a hydrocarbon chain

    IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "al"

    1st member: methanal

    ex. CH3CH2COH propanal

    5) Ketones: organic compound in which the carbonyl group (-CO-) is located within the hydrocarbon chain

    IUPAC naming: replace the -e from the corresponding alkane with "one"

    * use a # to indicate the location of the oxygen*

    ex. CH3COCH3 2-propanone

    6) Ethers: organic compound in which an oxygen atom is position between 2 carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain

    IUPAC naming: name the two radical groups on either side of the oxygen and follow with the word ether.

    ex. CH3-O-CH3 dimethyl ether

    CH3CH2-O-CH3 ethyl methyl ether

    CH3CH2CH2-O-CH3 methyl propyl ether

    7) Esters: An organic compound that results fro a reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol

    IUPAC naming: name the portion from the alcohol first by removing the "-anol" and replacing it with the ending "-yl"; name the portion from the carboxylic acid by changing the "-ic acid" to "-ate"

    ex. C5H11OH + CH3COOH → CH3COOC5H11 + H20

    pentanol + ethanoic acid → pentyl ethanoate + H2O

    8) Amines: organic compound derived from ammonia by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by hydrocarbon radicals

    IUPAC naming: for simple amines, there is only one attached hydrocarbon group. to name simple amines, replace the -e of the hydrocarbon name with the ending "-amine". Indicate the location of the nitrogen group with a #

    ex. CH3CH2NH2 ethanamine

    9) Amides: an organic compound that contains the carboxyl group (-CO-) and an amine group (looks like a combination of a ketone and amine)

    IUPAC naming: drop -e and add "-amide"

    ex. CH3CH2CONH2 propanamide

    Source(s): notes
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