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榮彬 asked in 政治與政府政治 · 2 decades ago





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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
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    只有三個字能形容~~~超級長Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of China The Parties to this Treaty, Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all Governments, and desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace in the West Pacific Area, Recalling with mutual pride the relationship which brought their two peoples together in a common bond of sympathy and mutual ideals to fight side by side against imperialist aggression during the last war, Desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of unity and their common determination to defend themselves against external armed attack, so that no potential aggressor could be under the illusion that either of them stands alone in the West Pacific Area, and Desiring further to strengthen their present efforts for collective defense for the preservation of peace and security pending the development of a more comprehensive system of regional security in the West Pacific Area, Have agreed as follows: ARTICLE I The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace, security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. ARTICLE II In order more effectively to achieve the objective of this Treaty, the Parties separately and jointly by self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack and communist subversive activities directed from without against their territorial integrity and political stability. ARTICLE III The parties undertake to strengthen their free institutions and to cooperate with each other in the development of economic progress and social well-being and to further their individual and collective efforts toward these ends. ARTICLE IV The Parties, through their Foreign Ministers or their deputies, will consult together from time to time regarding the implementation of this Treaty. ARTICLE V Each Party recognizes that an armed attack in the West Pacific Area directed against the territories of either of the Parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall be immediately reported to the Security Council of the United Nations. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security. ARTICLE VI For the purposes of Articles II and V, the terms territorial and territories shall mean in respect of the Republic of China, Taiwan and the Pescadores; and in respect of the United States of America, the island territories in the West Pacific under its jurisdiction. The provisions of Articles II and V will be applicable to such other territories as may be determined by mutual agreement. ARTICLE VII The Government of the Republic of China grants, and the Government of the United States of America accepts, the right to dispose such United States land, air and sea forces in and about Taiwan and the Pescadores as may be required for their defense, as determined by mutual agreement. ARTICLE VIII This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security. ARTICLE IX This Treaty shall be ratified by the United States of America and the Republic of China in accordance with their respective constitutional processes and will come into force when instruments of ratification thereof have been exchanged by them at Taipei. ARTICLE X This Treaty shall remain in force indefinitely. Either Party may terminate it one year after notice has been given to the other Party. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty. DONE in duplicate, in the English and Chinese languages, at Washington on this second day of December of the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Fifty-four, corresponding to the second day of the twelfth month of the Forty-third year of the Republic of China. For the United States of America: John Foster DULLES For the Republic of China: George K.C. YEH中文譯本中華民國、美利堅合眾國共同防禦條約   本條約締約國   茲重申其對聯合國憲章之宗旨與原則之信心,及其與所有人民及政府和平相處之願望,並欲增強西太平洋區域之和平結構;   以光榮之同感,追溯上次大戰期間,兩國人民為對抗帝國主義侵略,而在相互同情與共同理想之結合下,團結一致併肩作戰之關係;   願公開正式宣告其團結之精誠,及為其自衛而抵禦外來武裝攻擊之共同決心,俾使任何潛在之侵略者不存有任一締約國在西太平洋區域立於孤立地位之妄想;並願加強兩國為維護和平與安全而建立集體防禦之現有努力,以待西太平洋區域安全制度之發展; 茲議訂下列各條款。 第一條 本條約締約國承允依照聯合國憲章之規定,以不危及國際和平安全與正義之和平方法,解決可能牽涉兩國之任何國際爭議,並在其國際關係中,不以任何與聯合國宗旨相悖之方式,作武力之威脅或使用武力。 第二條 為期更有效達成本條約之目的起見,締約國將個別並聯合以自助及互助之方式,維持並發展其個別及集體之能力,以抵抗武裝攻擊,及由國外指揮之危害其領土完整與政治安定之共產顛覆活動。 第三條 締約國承允加強其自由制度,彼此合作以發展其經濟進步與社會福利,並為達到此等目的,而增加其個別與集體之努力。 第四條 締約國將經由其外交部部長或其代表,就本條約之實施隨時會商。 第五條 每一締約國承認對在西太平洋區域內任一締約國領土之武裝攻擊,即將危及其本身之和平與安全。茲並宣告將依其憲法程序採取行動,以對付此共同危險。 任何此項武裝攻擊及因而採取之一切措施,應立即報告聯合國安全理事會。此等措施應於安全理事會採取恢復並維持國際和平與安全之必要措施時予以終止。 第六條 為適用於第二條及第五條之目的,所有『領土』等辭,就中華民國而言,應指台灣與澎湖;就美利堅合眾國而言,應指西太平洋區域內在其管轄下之各島嶼領土。第二條及第五條之規定,並將適用於共同協議所決定之其他領土。 第七條 中華民國政府給予,美利堅合眾國政府接受,依共同協議之決定,在台灣澎湖及其附近,為其防衛所需而部署美國陸海空軍之權利。 第八條 本條約並不影響,且不應被解釋為影響,締約國在聯合國憲章下之權利及義務,或聯合國為維持國際和平與安全所負之責任。 第九條 本條約應由美利堅合眾國與中華民國各依其憲法程序以批准,並將於在台北互換批准書之日起發生效力。 第十條 本條約應無限期有效。任一締約國得於廢約之通知送達另一締約國一年後,予以終止。 為此,下開各全權代表爰於本條約簽字,以昭信守。 本條約用英文及中文各繕二份。 公曆一千九百五十四年十二月二日 中華民國四十三年十二月二日訂於華盛頓。 美利堅合眾國代表:John Foster Dulles 中華民國代表:葉公超 

    Source(s): 這裡有近代跟我國有關的條約協定的中英文譯本http://www.taiwantp.net/cgi/TWforum.pl?board_id=2&...
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago


    「中美互防」乃「中華民國與美利堅合眾國間共同防禦條約」(Mutual Defense Treaty Between The Republic of China andThe United States of America)之簡稱。本條約自西元一九五三年起,即由中美兩國在華盛頓及臺北兩地進行談判,至一九五四年七月進入具體談判階段,同年十二月二日正式簽訂於華盛頓,翌年三月三日於臺北互換批准書,並自即日起生效。








    第六條:為適用於第二條及第五條之目的,所有「領土」等辭,就中華民國而言,應指臺灣與澎湖;就美利堅合眾國而言,應指西太平洋區域內在其管轄下之各島嶼的領土。第二條及第五條之規定,並將 適用於經共同協議所決定之其他領土。








    (二)毀譽參半:中美共同防禦條約之簽訂,從好的方面看,它表明了美國承認與接受中華民國為其抵抗國際共產主義侵略之夥伴;但如細加觀察,此一條約又非美國對我國真誠之支持,蓋條約中,美國對我中華民國對大陸之軍事行動自由,加以嚴格之限制;並對我國領土主權之主張,採取曖昧之立場。因此,這一條約所建立之中美軍事同盟,實在不是一種建立在完全合作無間之基礎上的同盟,而是建立在短期之便利與妥協上。無怪乎一旦新的政治考慮超越了條約之用途時,則條約將必然遭到終止。尤其是重利輕義,向無堅持原則習慣,甚至敵友不分與是非不明之美國政客者流,更是如此。美國總統卡特在其一九七八年十二月十五日之電視宣布中宣稱:「中美共同防禦條約將於一九七九年底終止,同時,中美外交關係,亦自一九七九年 一月一日起斷絕。」足為明證。





    (二)法律與聯合公報在美國法制上之位階:「臺灣關係法」既係國會所制定,乃美國之法律,而聯合公報僅為行政首長之協議,不具條約之屬性,未經國會之審議同意,故在法制之位階上,前者優於後者,美國總統必須將其徹底予以執行。至於法律與條約兩者係屬同位,何者為優,端視制定與簽訂時間之先後為 斷。如法律之制定在先,則條約之簽訂不能違背法律;否則,如條約簽訂於先,則由於應遵守條約之承諾,國會自然不會再行制訂危害該一條約之法律。


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