Avine asked in 科學地理學 · 2 decades ago

關於阿根廷地理位置??

如題,求助關於阿根廷這個國家的地理資料,越詳細越好,內容包括如下。

1.地理位置,如經緯度,位於哪一洲?以及國內地形及氣候。

2.經濟發展,國內生產毛額,會是主要進口與出口商。

3.歷史與宗教,關於該國歷史及宗教的關聯或發展。

4.人民,該國主要屬哪種人,主要語言為何?

5.戰略地理位置,或目前國防須向哪方面改正?{←此項最重要,請發表詳細}

Update:

5.戰略地理位置,或目前國防須向哪方面改正?{←此項最重要,請發表詳細}

以上並不是說只針對這點回答,而是另外4都要提到。

麻煩各位大大,如果有更好的答案,資料,或是參考自己本身的經驗,都可以貼上去,就算不太清楚,在意見上發表也好!謝謝唷!^^

1 Answer

Rating
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    美新中亞戰略與上海合作組織

    王良能(花蓮師範學院社會教育系教授)

    【中國時報】2001/6/26

    六月十五日「上海合作組織」成員國六國元首會議在上海召開,有些分析家認為「上海合作組織」將成為「中」俄與中亞各國相互結合,以對抗美國與西歐「北大西洋公約組織」的新雛型,甚至聲稱中共的對外焦點可能從海洋轉向中亞,但對美國的新中亞政策卻甚少論及。

    冷戰結束後,由於俄羅斯政局不穩,經濟困難和中亞政策失當,更由於中亞地區重要的地理位置及潛在的石油儲量,中亞遂成為大國爭奪的焦點,在這種背景下,美國開始將中亞地區納入自己的利益範圍。一方面不承認俄羅斯在中亞地區擁有特殊利益和地位,極力排擠俄羅斯的勢力,另一方面從政治、軍事、教育、經濟等方面入手,以便確立美國對中亞地區的影響。

    首先,美國以投資、貸款、贈與等方式,「協助」中亞各國克服經濟困難,強化其對美國的依賴。

    其次,採取兩面手段,加緊對中亞地區的政治滲透,一是透過加強高層互訪和簽署條約、協定等方式,推進中亞各國民主改革及自由經濟,二是敦促中亞各國重視人權,例如,實施新聞和言論自由。第三,透過軍事援助、軍事交流與合作等途徑,加大軍事影響力,盡可能使中亞地區武裝力量「美國化」。

    總體而言,美國在中亞地區的根本意圖是排擠俄羅斯的傳統勢力,並利用中亞地區來擠壓中共的戰略空間。

    中亞五國與俄羅斯在宗教、民族和文化上差異很大,蘇聯解體後,中亞各國出現不同程度的伊斯蘭化傾向,不僅威脅中亞各國世俗政權,而且凸顯了中亞各國與俄羅斯在民族及宗教上的矛盾。加上近幾年來,中亞地區石油、天然氣的發現,使美國將中亞地區視為其歐亞地緣戰略的重點之一,美國對中亞地區的滲透,一方面為中亞各國擺脫俄羅斯的傳統影響提供了機會,另一方面也試圖影響中亞各國向以美國為首的西方靠攏,以實現排擠俄羅斯、並擠壓中共的戰略空間提供條件,構成對中共西部邊疆的直接威脅。

    目前,中共在中亞地區的影響極其有限,例如,土庫曼已有一三三個外國公司參與建設,其中,以色列三十二個,土耳其二十九個,德國十五個,伊朗十一個,義大利九個,美國七個,烏克蘭和阿根廷各四個,中國大陸連一個項目都沒有。這意謂中共在中亞地區的利益及影響極其有限,而中亞地區又被視為二十一世紀戰略能源基地,對中共相當重要,因此搞好與中亞各國的關係,對於防止外部大國介入,對於保障中共西部邊疆具有重要意義。

    因此「上海合作組織」是「中」俄有感於美國的威脅及內部民族宗教矛盾而成立的防禦性機構,並不存在「中」俄龍頭之爭,也不是「北約」的新雛型。俄羅斯不過想利用中共對俄國在中亞不具威脅,引入中共勢力發展經濟。而中亞各國政府內政不修,也不願受制於美國,在維護政權的需要下,同時尋求在美國、俄羅斯、中共之間保持平衡,而加入「上海合作組織」。

    迄今為止,中亞各國領導者對中共奉行睦鄰友好、不謀求特殊利益的政策讚揚,而中共與中亞各國經貿有限,投資與技術合作幾乎等於零,造成中共在中亞的地緣戰略利益無法得到充分保障,因而也無法有效遏阻民族分裂勢力,而中共內部的分裂勢力也容易為西方所用,中共是在這樣的背景下推動「上海合作組織」的成立。

    目前,中亞五國相當重視中共的改革經驗,認為勝過俄羅斯的改革實踐,又比西方模式適合內部國情。再加上中亞各國是內陸國,急需出海口,重建歐亞大陸橋樑,恢復絲路是中亞各國的共同願望,所以中亞各國這方面有求於中共,希望中共提供中亞各國進入東南亞及東北亞的通道。簡言之,「中」俄及中亞各國是在相互需要下,成立「上海合作組織」,並沒有成為中共所宣稱多極化世界的一極的用意。

    對於台灣內部有些想圍堵中共的人士而言,應該有自知之明,中亞並不是台灣能插手的地方,更遑論利用中亞圍堵中共,而中共目前實施的全方位外交也不會轉向中亞。

    ___________________

    Country profile: Argentina

    A country of diverse terrain, Argentina is nearly 4,000 km long from the subtropical north to the subantarctic south.

    It encompasses part

    of the Andes mountain range, swamps, the large plains of the Pampas, and a lengthy coastline. In the recent past Argentines have had to struggle with military dictatorship, a lost war over the Falkland Islands, and severe economic difficulties.

    OVERVIEW

    OVERVIEW | FACTS | LEADERS | MEDIA

    Argentina is rich in resources, has a well-educated workforce and is one of South America's largest economies. But it has also fallen prey to a boom and bust cycle.

    A deep recession was the prelude to economic collapse in 2001, leaving more than half the population living in poverty. The country struggled with record debt defaults and currency devaluation.

    By 2003 a recovery was under way, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) agreed to a vital new loan. In 2005 the country restructured its massive debt, offering creditors new bonds for the old, defaulted ones. But with poverty still rife, many Argentines still await the benefits of the economic upturn.

    The legacy of military rule from 1976-1983 remains an open wound. The fate of many of the thousands of 'disappeared' - opponents of the junta - is still unclear. Immunity laws, which protected former junta members from prosecution, were repealed in 2003.

    Argentines gave the world the tango. They are mad about soccer, and are reckoned to be the best polo players. Their love of horses is best personified by the figure of the Argentine 'gaucho', the solitary, independent ranch-hand, who has become known throughout the world.

    FACTS

    OVERVIEW | FACTS | LEADERS | MEDIA

    Population: 39.3 million (UN, 2005)

    Capital: Buenos Aires

    Area: 2.8 million sq km (1.1 million sq miles)

    Major language: Spanish

    Major religion: Christianity

    Life expectancy: 71 years (men), 78 years (women) (UN)

    Monetary unit: 1 peso = 100 centavos

    Main exports: Food and live animals, mineral fuels, cereals, machinery

    GNI per capita: US $3,650 (World Bank, 2003)

    Internet domain: .ar

    International dialling code: +54

    LEADERS

    OVERVIEW | FACTS | LEADERS | MEDIA

    President: Nestor Kirchner

    Nestor Kirchner won an uncontested presidential run-off vote in May 2003 after his rival, former president Carlos Menem, quit the race. Opinion polls had put Mr Menem well behind Mr Kirchner.

    Nestor Kirchner oversaw restructuring of Argentina's debt

    He took office at a time when Argentina was still reeling from the economic collapse of late 2001, with more than half the population living in poverty.

    Managing Argentina's foreign debt crisis and maintaining the support of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and international lenders were key challenges for Mr Kirchner. His government oversaw economic growth, negotiated loan agreements with the IMF and restructured Argentina's debt.

    Mr Kirchner, a Peronist, governed the oil-rich Patagonian province of Santa Cruz for 12 years. During his election campaign he promised to create jobs with a major public works programme and to strive for efficient government.

    The president has put human rights centre stage, devoting much effort to removing amnesties for military officers accused of human rights abuses during the era of military rule.

    Mr Kirchner is of Swiss and Croatian descent. He cut his political teeth in the Peronist left-wing and was imprisoned for a short time during the 1976-83 military dictatorship.

    Vice-president: Daniel Osvaldo Scioli

    Foreign minister: Rafael Bielsa

    Economy minister: Roberto Lavagna

    MEDIA

    OVERVIEW | FACTS | LEADERS | MEDIA

    Argentina is one of South America's leading media markets. The country has well over 150 daily newspapers, hundreds of commercial radio stations, dozens of TV stations and one of the world's highest take-up rates for cable TV.

    Over time, Argentina's media industry has consolidated and a number of large conglomerates have emerged. Public broadcasting has not played a major role in the development of radio and TV.

    Since the return to democracy in 1983, journalists in Argentina have generally been able to carry out their work freely. But there have been exceptions; isolated murders, beatings, kidnappings, and death threats still occur, particularly when the media investigate corruption or irregular business activities.

    The press

    Buenos Aires Herald - English-language daily

    Clarin - popular daily

    Cronica - tabloid daily

    El Cronista - business

    La Nacion - respected conservative daily

    La Prensa - Argentina's oldest newspaper

    Pagina 12 - left-wing daily

    Television

    Canal 7 - state-run network

    Telefe - network operated by Grupo Telefe, includes Canal 11 in Buenos Aires; boasts high ratings nationally

    Grupo Clarin - operates Canal 13 in Buenos Aires and nationally via satellite and cable, and cable/satellite news channel Todo Noticias

    Canal Nueve - Buenos Aires

    Radio

    Radio Nacional - state-run cultural network

    Radio America - mediumwave (AM) news station

    Grupo Clarin - operates news-based mediumwave (AM) station Radio Mitre, FM music network Cadena 100 and Top 40 network Gen 101.5

    Telefe - operates Top 40 network FM Hit; entertainment network Radio Continental

    Radio Argentina al Exterior (RAE) - external shortwave service

    News agencies

    Diaros y Noticias (DYN) - partly owned by Grupo Clarin

    Telam - state-run

    Noticias Argentinas - set up by privately-owned newspapers

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_...

    www.bbc.co.uk/radio1/onelife/trave.../argentina.shtml

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.