帥哥
Lv 4
帥哥 asked in 教育與參考其他:教育 · 2 decades ago

食品化學(教育)

我想問有誰修過食品化學可否替我解答以下問題?(翻譯並解釋)

1.Vitamins

(1)Vitamins function in vivo in several ways

(2)coenzymes or their precursors (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate)

(3)antioxidants(ascorbic acid, certain carotenoids, and vitamin E

(4)factors involved in genetic regulation (vitamins A, D, and potentially several others

2.Vitamins function in vivo in several ways

(1)specialized functions

( 2)vitamin A in vision

(3)ascorbate in various hydroxylation reactions

(4)vitamin K in specific carboxylation reactions

3.Postharvest Changes in Vitamin Content of Foods

(1.)Preliminary Treatments:

Trimming

Washing

Milling

(2)Leaching and Blanching

(3)Thermal Processing

4.Leaching and Blanching

(1)Solvent

(2)pH

(3)Temperature

(4)Solvent/Food ratio

(5)Surface area

5.Addition of Nutrients

(1).Restoration: Addition to restore the original concentration of key nutrients.

(2)Fortification: Addition of nutrients in amounts significant enough to render the food a good to superior source of the added nutrients. This may include addition of nutrients not normally associated with the food or addition to levels above that present in the unprocessed food

(3)Enrichment: Addition of specific amounts of selected nutrients in accordance with a standard of identity as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

(4)Nutrification:

This is a generic term intended to encompass any addition of nutrients to food.

6.Vitamins

(1.)Except for ascorbic acid, carotenoids, tocopherols, and possible riboflavin, vitamins are added to foods for nutritional purposes

(2)Ascorbic acid is sensitive to oxygen

(3)Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin are most heat labile

(4)A number of foods required fortification of vitamins – ie Vitamin A and D to milk

7.Water-Soluble Vitamins

(1)Ascorbic Acid:L-Ascorbic Acid →100% activity

D-Ascorbic Acid →10% activity

L-dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) →80-100% activity

Two-electron oxidation and hydrogen dissociation convert L-ascorbic acid to L-dehydroascorbic acid

L-ascorbic acid ←→ L-dehydroascorbic acid

(2)Ascorbic Acid:Ascorbic Acid is highly susceptible to oxidation

metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe3+

Heat

light

pH

oxygen concentration

water activity

2 Answers

Rating
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    1.維生素

    (1)用幾種模式的在活體內的維生素功能

    (2)coenzymes或者他們的先驅(煙酸,硫胺素,維生素B2,生物素,pantothenic酸,維生素B6,維生素B12 和葉酸)

    (3)抗氧化劑(抗壞血酸,某些類胡蘿蔔素和維生素E

    (4)把涉及的遺傳學的規章(維生素A,D 和潛在其它幾化為因子

    2.用幾種模式的在活體內的維生素功能

    (1)專業的功能

    (2)維生素時髦的視力

    (3)在各種各樣的hydroxylation 回應方面的ascorbate

    (4)在具體的carboxylation 回應方面的維生素K

    3.在食品的維生素內容方面的Postharvest 變化

    (1.)預處理︰

    整理

    (2)浸出和使變白

    (3)上升熱氣團處理

    4.浸出和使變白

    (1)有償付能力

    (2)pH值

    (3)溫度

    (4)溶劑/ 食品比率

    (5)表面面積

    5.營養物的增加

    (1). 恢復︰ 增加恢復關鍵營養物的原先的集中。

    (2)加強防衛︰ 要那些食品的足夠顯著的數量增加的營養物的一好朝優良來源的被增加的營養物的。 這可以包括不通常在unprocessed 食品裡在那份禮物上方與食品或者水準的增加相關的營養物的增加

    (3)富裕︰ 根據一個身分的標準的具體數量的選擇的營養物的增加正如美國食品和藥品管理局(食品及藥品管理局)所定義。

    (4)Nutrification︰

    這是打算圍繞食品的營養物的任何增加的一個一般的時期。

    6.維生素

    (1.)除了抗壞血酸,類胡蘿蔔素,tocopherols 和可能的維生素B2,維生素為營養的目的被增加給食品

    (2)抗壞血酸對氧敏感

    (3)硫胺素,維生素B2 和煙酸是易變化大多數熱

    (4)許多食品例如要求維生素V的加強防衛維生素A 和D在奶

    7.水溶性維生素

    (1)抗壞血酸︰L 抗壞血酸 △100%的活動

    D 抗壞血酸 △10%的活動

    L 脫氫抗壞血酸(DHAA) △80-100%的活動

    兩個電子的氧化和氫分離把L 抗壞血酸轉化成L 脫氫抗壞血酸

    L 抗壞血酸 ■△ L 脫氫抗壞血酸

    (2)抗壞血酸︰抗壞血酸非常對氧化敏感

    金屬離子,例如Cu2 + 和Fe3 +

    pH值

    氧集中

    水活動

    Source(s): Me
  • 少珮
    Lv 4
    7 years ago

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