Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

有關安樂死.....請幫我翻大概意思好嗎? part 1

我不是想要那種用翻譯軟體幫我翻的大大們

只是想要了解這四個大點的大意在談些什麼!!

萬分感謝

1. Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill."

There are two problems here -- the definition of "terminal" and the changes that have already taken place to extend euthanasia to those who aren't "terminally ill." There are many definitions for the word "terminal." For example, when he spoke to the National Press Club in 1992, Jack Kevorkian said that a terminal illness was "any disease that curtails life even for a day." The co-founder of the Hemlock Society often refers to "terminal old age." Some laws define "terminal" condition as one from which death will occur in a "relatively short time." Others state that "terminal" means that death is expected within six months or less.

Even where a specific life expectancy (like six months) is referred to, medical experts acknowledge that it is virtually impossible to predict the life expectancy of a particular patient. Some people diagnosed as terminally ill don't die for years, if at all, from the diagnosed condition. Increasingly, however, euthanasia activists have dropped references to terminal illness, replacing them with such phrases as "hopelessly ill," "desperately ill," "incurably ill," "hopeless condition," and "meaningless life."

An article in the journal, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, described assisted suicide guidelines for those with a hopeless condition. "Hopeless condition" was defined to include terminal illness, severe physical or psychological pain, physical or mental debilitation or deterioration, or a quality of life that is no longer acceptable to the individual. That means just about anybody who has a suicidal impulse .

2. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment

Perhaps one of the most important developments in recent years is the increasing emphasis placed on health care providers to contain costs. In such a climate, euthanasia certainly could become a means of cost containment.

In the United States, thousands of people have no medical insurance; studies have shown that the poor and minorities generally are not given access to available pain control, and managed-care facilities are offering physicians cash bonuses if they don't provide care for patients. With greater and greater emphasis being placed on managed care, many doctors are at financial risk when they provide treatment for their patients. Legalized euthanasia raises the potential for a profoundly dangerous situation in which doctors could find themselves far better off financially if a seriously ill or disabled person "chooses" to die rather than receive long-term care.

Savings to the government may also become a consideration. This could take place if governments cut back on paying for treatment and care and replace them with the "treatment" of death. For example, immediately after the passage of Measure 16, Oregon's law permitting assisted suicide, Jean Thorne, the state's Medicaid Director, announced that physician-assisted suicide would be paid for as "comfort care" under the Oregon Health Plan which provides medical coverage for about 345,000 poor Oregonians. Within eighteen months of Measure 16's passage, the State of Oregon announced plans to cut back on health care coverage for poor state residents. In Canada, hospital stays are being shortened while, at the same time, funds have not been made available for home care for the sick and elderly. Registered nurses are being replaced with less expensive practical nurses. Patients are forced to endure long waits for many types of needed surgery.

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    (你不會刪問題吧?我中文打的很慢的)

    安樂死將不會是給病末(terminally ill)的人

    這裡有兩個問題-- "terminal"(末期)的定義,與字義已被延伸至包括非「病末」的人。

    "terminal." 的定義有很多。舉例來說, Jack Kevorkian 在 1992 年在 National Press Club (全國新聞俱樂部)說末期病是「任何縮短生命(即使是一天)的疾病」。The Hemlock Society 的共創人常提到「末期老年齡」。一些法規將 "terminal" 狀況定為死亡將會在「相對的短期」發生的狀況,其它則說 "terminal" 表示死亡預計會在六個月內發生。

    就算是提到生命期(如六個月),醫療專家承認要預測病人的生命期幾乎是不可能的。有些被診斷為病末的人在數年(或超過)內還不會因診斷出的狀況死。不過,越來越多的安樂死行動者言論中將 terminal illness 取代為如「病的沒希望」、「無法治的病」、與「沒以意義的生命」等字眼

    (學術?)雜誌 Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 有篇文章裡定出協助自殺的規範,在這裡「沒希望的的病況」的定義包括了末期病、數個身理與心理的病痛、身體或精神的衰弱退化、或對個人無法接受的生活品質。基本上這代表任何有自殺傾向的人。

    2. 安樂死可能會成為控制健康醫療費用的方法

    也許最近幾年最重要的改變是對控制健康醫療提供者的費用增長的逐漸重視。在這種環境中,安樂死非常有可能成為控制醫療費用的途徑。

    在美國有數千人沒有建保;研究有顯示貧窮與弱勢人民一般無法取得解除疼痛的醫療,而 managed-care facilities (醫生與病人間有中間人,如 HMO 或保險公司的醫療設施)會對不提供給病人醫療的醫生給予金錢津貼。在 managed care 的受人逐漸重視下,許多的醫生會因提供病人治療而出現財務危機。合法安樂死可能會引發一種非常危險的情況是,醫生發覺如果重病或有障礙的病患「選擇」死亡來取代長期治療,他們(醫生)財務上會較好。

    政府的經費結省也可能成為考慮因素。可能出現的情況是政府刪減醫療的支出,用死亡的「治療」來取代。舉例來說,在

    Measure 16 (俄勒岡州允許協助自殺的法案)通過後,州立 Medicaid (醫療補助) 執行長 Jean Thorne 馬上宣佈醫生協助的自殺會被當做「舒適治療」受服務 345,000 名俄勒岡州窮人的 Oregon Health Plan (俄勒岡州健康計劃)所支付。在 Measure 16 通過的十八個月內,俄勒岡州宣佈刪減給予州內貧戶的醫療範圍。在加拿大,在住院被縮短的同時,病人與老人的在家療養的資金沒被提供。註冊護士被較便宜的 practical nurses(操作護士)取代。病人被強破忍受長期等待許多的手術。

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Daniel Wang

    你翻的很好啊!!! 有沒有空也幫我翻翻安樂死part 2...?!不過那個很長....拜托拜托...

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