贈高點!可以告訴我關於河口灣(ESTUARIES)嗎??

我想知道estuaries的一些資訊,希望可以給我網址,我需要英文的(希望可以有中英對照)假如只有中文的話我會先看看很棒的話一樣給點,希望各位英文好的大大幫忙!!拜託

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    第一個

    FREMP & its Partners

    The Fraser River Estuary Management Program (FREMP) is a partnership of six agencies created in 1985 in response to public concerns about the negative effects of development, rapid population growth, deterioration of the estuary's valuable natural features and communication problems between government agencies.

    FREMP brings together the agencies responsible for setting and enforcing environmental legislation and policy with those responsible for land and water management. Together the FREMP partners coordinate their long range planning and operational decision making to ensure a sustainable future for the Fraser River estuary.

    FREMP partners use a consensus-based approach to the complex environmental issues and concerns for the Fraser River Estuary. Ecosystem-based management solutions require long-term planning.

    FREMP Partners:

    Environment Canada

    Fisheries and Oceans Canada

    Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks

    Greater Vancouver Regional District

    Fraser River Port Authority

    North Fraser Port Authority

    The Lower Fraser Basin Eco-Research Project

    Visual Tour of the Lower Fraser Basin

    由於列治文與三角洲市位於菲沙河河口三角洲地帶,菲沙河流域涵蓋卑詩省四分之一面積,水流量十分充沛,導致該地區西海岸一帶大多為半鹹水生態 (brackish) ,包括溫哥華市西南角的 Pacific Spirit公園海岸,機場所在的海島 (Sea Island) 與其西北角的愛歐娜海灘,列治文海堤的鱘魚淺灘(Sturgeon Bank),三角洲市的魏斯得漢島(Westham Island)以及布蘭斯維克岬(Brunswick Point)。每天漲潮時,海水常可上達新西敏市,最遠可達匹特河岸(Pitt River)。半鹼水溼地是世界上生物產量最豐富的地區,每年每公頃產量可達平均五公噸,這是鹼水溼地產量的三倍。

      

    通常在生長末期,這些植物大多凋零死亡,而創造出大量的有機腐植物,隨著潮水而沖出附近水域。這些有機腐植物提供許多浮游生物營養食物的來源,維繫著整個河口潮間河道與溼地的食物鏈。半鹼水溼地不僅提供魚類與水鴨覓食與棲息地,同時也是一些老鼠 (Mice, Voles)的家,它們大多躲在漂木的下方,而水貂(Mink)與短尾鼬(Weasel) 則獵食這些哺乳類動物。

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    第二個

    摘要

    河口(estuary)位於河海交界處,地形深受海陸象營力與人類活動的影響。緊鄰台北都會區的淡水河口屬沿海地區自然環境保護區域之一,河口變遷深影響周圍土地利用與生態環境,因此本研究針對淡水河口地區從關渡至挖子尾地區沿岸的堆積地進行地形變遷研究,且探討近年變遷的因素及影響。

    研究以歸納分析為方法,利用歷年地圖、航照與水利局淡水河河道剖面繪製、比對平面與剖面的地形形態;蒐集歷年相關環境資料討論與地形變遷趨勢的相關性。研究結果顯示:

    (一)淡水河口長期地形演變趨勢

    八十年(1904-1980)來的河口堆積範圍大致固定,但岸線位置易變,歷年岸線消長呈後退-前進-後退的趨勢。近二、三十幾年來,挖子尾沙嘴與周圍灘地的岸線呈後退-前進的趨勢,沙嘴向東延伸,與河口地區的沈積收支趨勢相關。淡水與竹圍地區間的岸線從侵蝕後退-侵淤互見,沈積收支趨勢、洪水侵蝕、植被護岸是變化的原因。剖面形態顯示河岸的消長與河谷的寬幅、河岸彎曲特性相關;歷年河口域全區從侵蝕到微幅淤積。

    (二)近二、三十年來變遷因素及其所造成的影響

    人為影響河口沈積物收支方面:砂石開採是造成河口收支不平衡的主因,1986年後人為減少對輸沙的干擾及台北港興建幫助增加海象沈積物供應,使河口剖面轉侵為淤。洪水對地形變遷方面:以竹圍沙洲沿岸侵蝕後退情形為例,地形受侵蝕頻率與洪水事件發生頻率有關,河岸侵蝕的程度在平衡的環境中易回復原先狀態,在收支不平衡的異常環境加速侵蝕幅度。

    河口沿岸縮減威脅人類居住安全,如挖子尾沙嘴附近為受損害最嚴重的地區,沿岸的土地利用漸遷往高灘地或堤防後方發展,這些威脅自1986年減緩。對紅樹林生態:1986年沿岸堆積地範圍略幅增長,有利紅樹林擴展分佈。

    關鍵字:河口、地形變遷、淡水河口

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    The morphology of Tamsui River Estuary is highly influenced by natural environment and human activities. This study focus on the long-term evolution of Tamsui River Estuary between 1970 and 2000.

    By using topographical maps, aerial photos and cross sectional data, the evolution of study area is mapped. The results show that:

    1. River bank of Tamsui River Estuary has been eroded and deposited for several times. According to the maps and cross sectional data, it changes from erosion to slight deposition.

    2. AS a dynamic environment, the processes of flood can further influence the morphology of estuary. Furthermore human impact on sediment balance, especially sand mining and the construction of Taipei harbor, can have contributed to morphological change.

    3. The retreating of Tamsui River Estuary has damaged property and mangrove ecology. Because the processes at estuary are shifting from erosion, this may be good to the mangrove in the area.

    Keywords:Estuary、morphological change、Tamsui River Estuary

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