威少 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago

我想翻譯這段英文~有人能幫我嗎???

There is nothing quite like Stonehenge anywhere in the world and for 5000 years it has drawn visitors to it. We shall never know what drew people here over the centuries or why hundreds of people struggled over thousands of years to build this monument, but visitors from all over the world come to marvel at this amazing feat of engineering.

Before Stonehenge was built thousands of years ago, the whole of Salisbury Plain was a forest of towering pines and hazel woodland. Over centuries the landscape changed to open chalk downland. What you see today is about half of the original monument, some of the stones have fallen down, others have been carried away to be used for building or to repair farm tracks and over centuries visitors have added their damage too. It was quite normal to hire a hammer from the blacksmith in Amesbury and come to Stonehenge to chip bits off. As you can imagine this practice is no longer permitted!

Stonehenge was built in three phases. The first stage was a circle of timbers surrounded by a ditch and bank. The ditch would have been dug by hand using animal bones, deer antlers which were used as pick-axes to loosen the underlying chalk and then the shoulder blades of oxen or cattle were used as shovels to clear away the stones. Excavations of the ditch have recovered antlers that were left behind deliberately and it was by testing their age through radio carbon dating we now know that the first henge was built over 50 centuries ago, that is about 3,100 BC. That's where the mystery begins. We haven't just found old bones, around the edge of the bank we also found 56 holes now known as Aubrey Holes, named after the 17th century antiquarian, John Aubrey, who found them in about 1666. We know that these holes were dug to hold wooden posts, just as holes were dug later to hold the stone pillars that you see today. So this was the first stage built about 5,050 years ago, wooden post circle surrounded by a deep ditch and bank.

Then about 4,500 years ago – 2,500 BC and about 2,400 years before the Romans set foot in Britain, it was rebuilt. This time in stone, bluestones were used which are the smaller stones that you can see in the pictures. These came from the Prescelli Mountains in Pembroke, South Wales 245 miles (380kms), dragged down to the sea, floated on huge rafts, brought up the River Avon, finally overland to where they are today. It was an amazing feat when you consider that each stone weighs about five tons. It required unbelievable dedication from ancient man to bring these stones all the way from South Wales.

Before the second phase of Stonehenge was complete work stopped and there was a period of abandonment. Then began a new bigger, even better Stonehenge, the one that we know today- this was approximately 4,300 years ago, about 2,300 BC, the third and final stage of what we see now.

The bluestones were dug up and rearranged and this time even bigger stones were brought in from the Marlborough Downs, 20 miles (32 kms). These giant sandstones or Sarsen stones, as they are now called were hammered to size using balls of stone known as ‘mauls'. Even today you can see the drag marks. Each pair of stones was heaved upright and linked on the top by the lintels. To get the lintels to stay in place, the first wood working techniques were used. They made joints in stone, linking the lintels in a circular manner using a tongue and groove joint, and subsequently the upright and lintel with a ball and socket joint or mortice and tenon. This was all cleverly designed on the alignment of the rising of the mid summer sun.

How did they get these stones to stand upright? The truth is nobody really knows. It required sheer muscle power and hundreds of men to move one of these megaliths, the heaviest of them weighing probably about 45 tons.

There are some wonderful myths and legends and you can hear them on the audio tour at Stonehenge in nine different languages, English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, Russian and Japanese.

Stonehenge was formerly owned by a local man, Sir Cecil Chubb, and he gave it to the nation in 1918 and it is now managed by English Heritage on behalf of the Government. In 1986, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site and you can learn more about this on the World Heritage Site section. It is without doubt one of the finest prehistoric monuments in existence and an even more remarkable mystery.

The area is not special just because of the stones or the archaeologically rich landscape it sits in, but because of the plants that grow there. There is rare sedge grass and even the yellow and grey patches on the stones are tiny, slow growing plants called lichens.

It's thought that the name Stonehenge originates from the Anglo-Saxon period – the old English word ‘henge' meaning hanging or gibbet. So what we have is literally ‘the hanging stones', derived probably from the lintels of the trilithons which appear to be suspended above their massive uprights. Today the word ‘henge' has a specific archaeological meaning: a circular enclosure surrounding settings of stones and timber uprights, or pits.

Three kilometres to the north-east of Stonehenge, Woodhenge is another henge monument. Dated to around 2,300BC, originally it comprised six concentric rings of wooden post. It was probably covered with a roof, or perhaps the wooden posts were joined in the Stonehenge fashion. Now, although there is no evidence for animal or human sacrifice at Stonehenge, some believe that the presence of the grave of a young child, found at Woodhenge, would seem to indicate a ritual sacrifice, possibly a dedicatory burial.

Another feature which is worth mentioning, which was built before the stone settings, is the Cursus – which lies to the north. It consists of two straight banks and ditches 90-130 metres apart running 2.8 kilometres in length, from east to west. When it was called the Cursus in the eighteenth century, it was thought to be some sort of racetrack. Some people also think that it has a processional ritual use. However, its true function remains a mystery.

English Heritage is charged with caring for Stonehenge and is committed to its conservation and good management and preservation for future generations. In the landscape around it, the National Trust – who own nearly 1500 acres – are equally concerned for the well-being of this area. And if you have the time, an exploration of the surrounding countryside, with its henges, and cursus and barrows and all the other monuments, is well worthwhile. This is a vast prehistoric scene, with Stonehenge as the ultimate expression of the power which held society together at that time.

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
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    十分象Stonehenge一樣在世界上和5000 年任何地方沒有什麼它已經拉它的參觀者。 我們將決不知道什麼在世紀在這裡拉人或者數百人為什麼超過數千年奮鬥建造這座紀念碑, 但是來自全世界的參觀者來對工程的這項驚人的偉績感到驚訝。

    Stonehenge建造多年以前數千,明白的所有索爾茲伯裡一高松樹和榛子林地的森林。 在數世紀打開粉筆downland的改變的風景。 你今天看見的是大約原先的紀念碑的一半, 一些石頭已經倒下, 其它人沖走用于建造或者修理農場軌道和越過世紀,參觀者增加他們的損害也。 從在Amesbury裡的鐵匠那裡租用一把鐵錘並且來Stonehenge 離開豁開一點兒是十分正常的。 當你能想像這實踐不再被允許時﹗

    Stonehenge被用三相建造。 第一個階段是一條溝和銀行包圍的一圈木材。 溝可能被親手使用動物骨頭挖, 被用作精選砍放鬆基礎的粉筆的鹿鹿角, 然後公牛或者牛的肩葉片被用作鏟消散石頭。 溝的洞穴已經恢復被有意識留下的鹿角, 並且透過收音機碳約會是透過測試他們的年齡我們現下知道第一個henge 50個世紀多以前被建造, 那是大約西元前3,100年。 那是祕密開始的地方。 我們沒剛剛找到老的骨頭, 在銀行的邊緣周遭我們也建立現下被稱為奧布裡洞的56個洞, 以第17 世紀命名研究文物,在大約1666找到他們的約翰‧奧布裡。 我們知道這些洞理解舉行木製崗位,洞理解過后舉行你今天看見的石柱正當時。 因此這是大約5,050 年以前建造的第一個階段,木製崗位盤旋透過一條深的溝和銀行包圍。

    十分象Stonehenge一樣在世界上和5000 年任何地方沒有什麼它已經拉它的參觀者。 我們將決不知道什麼在世紀在這裡拉人或者數百人為什麼超過數千年奮鬥建造這座紀念碑, 但是來自全世界的參觀者來對工程的這項驚人的偉績感到驚訝。

    Stonehenge建造多年以前數千,明白的所有索爾茲伯裡一高松樹和榛子林地的森林。 在數世紀打開粉筆downland的改變的風景。 你今天看見的是大約原先的紀念碑的一半, 一些石頭已經倒下, 其它人沖走用于建造或者修理農場軌道和越過世紀,參觀者增加他們的損害也。 從在Amesbury裡的鐵匠那裡租用一把鐵錘並且來Stonehenge 離開豁開一點兒是十分正常的。 當你能想像這實踐不再被允許時﹗

    Stonehenge被用三相建造。 第一個階段是一條溝和銀行包圍的一圈木材。 溝可能被親手使用動物骨頭挖, 被用作精選砍放鬆基礎的粉筆的鹿鹿角, 然後公牛或者牛的肩葉片被用作鏟消散石頭。 溝的洞穴已經恢復被有意識留下的鹿角, 並且透過收音機碳約會是透過測試他們的年齡我們現下知道第一個henge 50個世紀多以前被建造, 那是大約西元前3,100年。 那是祕密開始的地方。 我們沒剛剛找到老的骨頭, 在銀行的邊緣周遭我們也建立現下被稱為奧布裡洞的56個洞, 以第17 世紀命名研究文物,在大約1666找到他們的約翰‧奧布裡。 我們知道這些洞理解舉行木製崗位,洞理解過后舉行你今天看見的石柱正當時。 因此這是大約5,050 年以前建造的第一個階段,木製崗位盤旋透過一條深的溝和銀行包圍。

    然後大約在那些羅馬人進入英國之前,它被再造的V 2,500 西元前和大約2,400年以前4,500年。 這次在石頭裡,bluestones被使用,是你能在照片內看見的更小的石頭。 這些在彭布洛克,威爾士南部245英里(380kms)來自Prescelli 山, 拖到這個海,漂浮在巨大的筏上,帶上來這條河亞芬河,今天對他們在的地方來說最後陸上。 它是一項驚人的偉績當你考慮時,每塊石頭重約5 公頓。 它要求來自古人的難以相信的奉獻從威爾士南部一直帶來這些石頭。

    在Stonehenge的第二階段是停止的完整的工作之前,有放棄的一段時期。 然後開始新更大,更好的Stonehenge, 我們知道今天這的那個4,300 年以前大約,大約西元前2,300年,第3 和我們現下看見的最後的階段。

    bluestones被挖出並且重新安排和這次更大的石頭被從馬爾伯勒廣闊的高地帶來,20英里(32 公里)。 當他們現下被叫時,這些巨大沙岩或者Sarsen石頭被重打到使用稱為¯mauls的石頭的球的尺寸。 即使今天你能看見阻力標記。 每對石頭被筆直發出並且透過楣在頂上連結。 為了得到楣停留在適當的位置,使用技術的第一個木頭被使用。 他們在石頭裡做關節, 以圓的模式使用一個舌頭和槽溝的連結楣共同, 並且直立和楣與共同的一球和插座或者切削和凸榫一起后來。 這全部被巧妙在夏天太陽中期的提升的調整上設計。

    他們怎樣得到要筆直站的這些石頭? 事實任何人真的知道。 它要求完全肌肉權力和數百個人移動這些巨石之一,最沉重的他們或許重量為大約45公頓。

    有一些令人驚嘆的神話和傳奇,你能在9 種不同的語言在在Stonehenge的音頻的旅行時聽到他們, 英語,法語,德語,荷蘭語,西班牙語,義大利語,瑞典語,俄語和日語。

    一個本地人,塞西爾‧查布先生以前擁有了Stonehenge, 並且他在1918年把給到國家,它現下代表政府被英國遺產管理。 在1986年,它被作為一個世界遺產站點寫上,你在世界遺產站點部分上能更詳細地了解這。 這無疑是存在的最好的史前的紀念碑和一個更驚人的祕密之一。

    地區僅僅因為石頭或者archaeologically不特別它坐的富有風景,而是因為增長在那裡的植物。 有稀有的蘆葦草,甚至在石頭上的黃和灰色的補丁是極小,慢的種的稱為石耳的植物。

    它被認為名字Stonehenge盎格魯-撒克遜人時期V起源于老的英語單詞¯henge '掛的意思或者絞架。 因此我們有的簡直是懸掛石頭的的¯the,或許從看起來被高于他們的巨大立柱中止的trilithons的楣得到。 今天那些¯henge 單詞'有細節考古學意味著︰ 一個圓的圈占地圍繞石頭和木材立柱或者坑的底座。

    距Stonehenge的北方東邊3 公里,Woodhenge是另一座henge 紀念碑。 對大約西元前2,300年斷定的年代,最初它包括木製崗位的6 枚同心的戒指。 它或許為屋頂所覆蓋,或者或許木製崗位被用Stonehenge模式參加。 現下, 雖然對于動物沒有證據,但是或者在Stonehenge的人供奉, 一些相信那一個幼小的孩子的墳墓的存在, 在Woodhenge 發現,好像表明一次儀式犧牲,也許一個題獻的葬禮。

    值得提及,這在石頭底座之前被建造的另一個特徵,是對北方說謊的Cursus V。 90-130米(相隔跑2.8 公里長,從東方到西方)由兩家直的銀行和溝組成。 當它在18 世紀被叫為Cursus時,它被認為是有點跑道。 一些人也認為它讓一種隊伍的儀式使用。 不過,它的真實的功能保持一個祕密。

    英國遺產被指控喜歡Stonehenge並且為后代保證它的保護和高水準管理和保存。 在風景裡在它周遭,擁有差不多1500英畝的第V國家信托V 對于這個地區的安寧同樣有關。 並且如果你有時間, 一次近郊區的探索,帶有它的henges 和cursus和手推車和全部其它紀念碑,好值得。 這是一個巨大的史前的景象,以Stonehenge作為在那時把社會結合在一起的能力的最後的表示。

    2005-05-08 22:23:28 補充:

    別那麼客氣囉~是剛好我有翻譯軟體~希望能幫到你的忙!

    那是用Dr.eye翻的!

    Source(s): Dr.eye
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  • 6 years ago

    到下面的網址看看吧

    ▶▶http://qoozoo09260.pixnet.net/blog

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  • 2 decades ago

    這應該是用軟體翻的,還不錯,是什麼軟體?

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  • 2 decades ago

    因為太趕著要這篇文章的翻譯了~所以才要請人幫忙囉^^"

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  • 英文還是自己翻比較有所收獲吧

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