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Anonymous asked in 教育與參考其他:教育 · 1 decade ago

哪個人能幫幫偶 15點

聖誕節的由來....有中文簡介和英文簡介 麻煩負網址

偶之前有問過 但沒滿意ㄉ答案 誰能幫幫偶>"<

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
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    聖誕節的由來

    聖誕節是基督徒紀念耶穌誕生的一個重要節日。根據聖經記載耶穌誕生在猶太的一座小城--伯利恆。該書記載聖母瑪利亞是因聖神的感動而懷孕,就在與丈夫若瑟返往家鄉時遇上所有的旅店客滿,因此瑪利亞被迫在馬槽裡產下耶穌。據說當耶穌安祥的睡在馬槽裡,在遙遠的東方有三博士追隨天上的一顆明亮星星找到耶穌,並膜拜他。牧羊人在曠野中也聽到有天使的聲音在天上發出,向他們報耶穌降生的佳音。

    耶穌誕生的年份已無從考察,但大多數考古學家都認為應該是在劃分世紀的那一年(即是公元前一年)為其誕生之年。但正確的日期卻無法確定,因此在早期的基督教派便把羅馬帝國密司拉教在十二月二十五日紀念太陽神誕辰改為聖誕節。

    ----------------------------------

    The history of Christmas dates back over 4000 years. Many of our Christmas traditions were celebrated centuries before the Christ child was born. The 12 days of Christmas, the bright fires, the yule log, the giving of gifts, carnivals(parades) with floats, carolers who sing while going from house to house, the holiday feasts, and the church processions can all be traced back to the early Mesopotamians.

    Many of these traditions began with the Mesopotamian celebration of New Years. The Mesopotamians believed in many gods, and as their chief god - Marduk. Each year as winter arrived it was believed that Marduk would do battle with the monsters of chaos. To assist Marduk in his struggle the Mesopotamians held a festival for the New Year. This was Zagmuk, the New Year's festival that lasted for 12 days.

    The Mesopotamian king would return to the temple of Marduk and swear his faithfulness to the god. The traditions called for the king to die at the end of the year and to return with Marduk to battle at his side.

    To spare their king, the Mesopotamians used the idea of a "mock" king. A criminal was chosen and dressed in royal clothes. He was given all the respect and privileges of a real king. At the end of the celebration the "mock" king was stripped of the royal clothes and slain, sparing the life of the real king.

    The Persians and the Babylonians celebrated a similar festival called the Sacaea. Part of that celebration included the exchanging of places, the slaves would become the masters and the masters were to obey.

    Early Europeans believed in evil spirits, witches, ghosts and trolls. As the Winter Solstice approached, with its long cold nights and short days, many people feared the sun would not return. Special rituals and celebrations were held to welcome back the sun.

    In Scandinavia during the winter months the sun would disappear for many days. After thirty-five days scouts would be sent to the mountain tops to look for the return of the sun. When the first light was seen the scouts would return with the good news. A great festival would be held, called the Yuletide, and a special feast would be served around a fire burning with the Yule log. Great bonfires would also be lit to celebrate the return of the sun. In some areas people would tie apples to branches of trees to remind themselves that spring and summer would return.

    The ancient Greeks held a festival similar to that of the Zagmuk/Sacaea festivals to assist their god Kronos who would battle the god Zeus and his Titans.

    The Roman's celebrated their god Saturn. Their festival was called Saturnalia which began the middle of December and ended January 1st. With cries of "Jo Saturnalia!" the celebration would include masquerades in the streets, big festive meals, visiting friends, and the exchange of good-luck gifts called Strenae (lucky fruits).

    The Romans decked their halls with garlands of laurel and green trees lit with candles. Again the masters and slaves would exchange places.

    "Jo Saturnalia!" was a fun and festive time for the Romans, but the Christians though it an abomination to honor the pagan god. The early Christians wanted to keep the birthday of their Christ child a solemn and religious holiday, not one of cheer and merriment as was the pagan Saturnalia.

    But as Christianity spread they were alarmed by the continuing celebration of pagan customs and Saturnalia among their converts. At first the Church forbid this kind of celebration. But it was to no avail. Eventually it was decided that the celebration would be tamed and made into a celebration fit for the Christian Son of God.

    Some legends claim that the Christian "Christmas" celebration was invented to compete against the pagan celebrations of December. The 25th was not only sacred to the Romans but also the Persians whose religion Mithraism was one of Christianity's main rivals at that time. The Church eventually was successful in taking the merriment, lights, and gifts from the Saturanilia festival and bringing them to the celebration of Christmas.

    The exact day of the Christ child's birth has never been pinpointed. Traditions say that it has been celebrated since the year 98 AD. In 137 AD the Bishop of Rome ordered the birthday of the Christ Child celebrated as a solemn feast. In 350 AD another Bishop of Rome, Julius I, choose December 25th as the observance of Christmas.

    ----------------------------------

    The History of Christmas

    In the Western world, the birthday of Jesus Christ has been celebrated on December 25th since AD 354, replacing an earlier date of January 6th. The Christians had by then appropriated many pagan festivals and traditions of the season, that were practiced in many parts of the Middle East and Europe, as a means of stamping them out.

    There were mid-winter festivals in ancient Babylon and Egypt, and Germanic fertility festivals also took place at this time. The birth of the ancient sun-god Attis in Phrygia was celebrated on December 25th, as was the birth of the Persian sun-god, Mithras. The Romans celebrated Saturnalia, a festival dedicated to Saturn, the god of peace and plenty, that ran from the 17th to 24th of December. Public gathering places were decorated with flowers, gifts and candles were exchanged and the population, slaves and masters alike, celebrated the occasion with great enthusiasm.

    In Scandinavia, a period of festivities known as Yule contributed another impetus to celebration, as opposed to spirituality. As Winter ended the growing season, the opportunity of enjoying the Summer's bounty encouraged much feasting and merriment.

    The Celtic culture of the British Isles revered all green plants, but particularly mistletoe and holly. These were important symbols of fertility and were used for decorating their homes and altars.

    New Christmas customs appeared in the Middle Ages. The most prominent contribution was the carol, which by the 14th century had become associated with the religious observance of the birth of Christ.

    In Italy, a tradition developed for re-enacting the birth of Christ and the construction of scenes of the nativity. This is said to have been introduced by Saint Francis as part of his efforts to bring spiritual knowledge to the laity.

    Saints Days have also contributed to our Christmas celebrations. A prominent figure in today's Christmas is Saint Nicholas who for centuries has been honoured on December 6th. He was one of the forerunners of Santa Claus.

    Another popular ritual was the burning of the Yule Log, which is strongly embedded in the pagan worship of vegetation and fire, as well as being associated with magical and spiritual powers.

    Celebrating Christmas has been controversial since its inception. Since numerous festivities found their roots in pagan practices, they were greatly frowned upon by conservatives within the Church. The feasting, gift-giving and frequent excesses presented a drastic contrast with the simplicity of the Nativity, and many people throughout the centuries and into the present, condemn such practices as being contrary to the true spirit of Christmas.

    The earliest English reference to December 25th as Christmas Day did not come until 1043.

    參考資料

    http://www.holidays.net/christmas/story.htm

    http://www.christmas-time.com/cp-hist.html

    http://home.kimo.com.tw/jwsh205/xmas1.htm

    http://www.shes.cy.edu.tw/xmas/xmas.htm

  • 1 decade ago

    聖誕節--

    中文簡介:" 聖誕節"這個名稱是"基督彌撒"的縮寫。彌撒是教會的一種禮拜儀式。這一天,世界所有的基督教會都舉行特別的禮拜儀式。但是有很多 聖誕節的歡慶活動和宗教並無半點關聯。交換禮物,寄聖誕卡,這都使 聖誕節成為一個普天同慶的日子。

    聖誕節是基督教世界最大的節日,4世紀初,1月6日是羅馬帝國東部各教會紀念耶穌降生和受洗的雙重節日、稱為"主顯節"Epiphany,亦稱"顯現節"即上帝通過耶穌向世人顯示自己。當時隻有耶路拉冷的教會例外,那裏隻紀念耶穌的誕生而不紀念耶穌的受洗。後來歷史學家們在羅馬基督徒習用的日曆中發現公元 354年12月25日頁內記錄著:"基督降生在猶太的伯利恆。"經過研究,一般認為12月25日為聖誕節可能開始於公元336年的羅馬教會,約在公元375年傳到小亞細亞的安提阿,公元 430年傳到埃及的亞歷山大裏亞,耶路撒冷的教會接受得最晚,而亞美尼亞的教會則仍然堅持1月6日主顯節是耶穌的誕辰。

    12月25日原來是波斯太陽神(即光明之神)密特拉的誕辰,是一個異教徒節日,同時太陽神也是羅馬國教眾神之一。這一天又是羅馬曆書的冬至節,崇拜太陽神的異教徒都把這一天當作春天的希望,萬物復蘇的開始。可能由於這個原因,羅馬教會才選擇這一天作為 聖誕節。這是教會初期力圖把異教徒的風俗習慣基督教化的措施之一。後來,雖然大多數教會都接受12月25日為 聖誕節,但又因各地教會使用的曆書不同,具體日期不能統一,於是就把12月24日到第二年的1月6日定為 聖誕節節期,各地教會可以根據當地具體情況在這段節期之內慶祝 聖誕節。自從12月25日被大多數教會公認為聖誕節後,原來1月6日的主顯節就隻紀念耶穌受洗了,但天主教會又把1月6日定為"三王來朝節",以紀念耶穌誕生時東方三王來朝拜的故事。隨著基督教的廣泛傳播, 聖誕節已成為各教派基督徒,甚至廣大非基督徒群眾的一個重要節日。在歐美許多國家裏,人們非常重視這個節日,把它和新年連在一起,而慶祝活動之熱鬧與隆重大大超過了新年,成為一個全民的節日。12月25日的主要紀念活動都與耶穌降生的傳說有關。

    耶蘇的出生是有一段故事的,耶蘇是因著聖靈成孕,由童女馬利亞所生的。神更派遣使者加伯列在夢中曉諭約瑟,叫他不要因為馬利亞未婚懷孕而不要她,反而要與她成親,把那孩子起名為"耶蘇",意思是要他把百姓從罪惡中救出來。

    當馬利亞快要臨盆的時候,羅馬政府下了命令,全部人民到伯利恆務必申報戶籍。約瑟和馬利亞隻好遵命。他們到達伯利恆時,天色已昏,無奈兩人未能找到旅館住宿,隻有一個馬棚可以暫住。就在這時,耶蘇要出生了!於是馬利亞唯有在馬槽上,生下耶蘇。後人為紀念耶蘇的誕生,便定十二月二十五為 聖誕節,年年望彌撒,紀念耶蘇的出世。

    聖誕節便是於十二月二十五日紀念耶蘇的誕生,但真實的誕生日就沒有人知道了。十九世紀,聖誕卡的流行、聖誕老人的出現, 聖誕節也開始流行起來了......

    The history of Christmas dates back over 4000 years. Many of our Christmas traditions were celebrated centuries before the Christ child was born. The 12 days of Christmas, the bright fires, the yule log, the giving of gifts, carnivals(parades) with floats, carolers who sing while going from house to house, the holiday feasts, and the church processions can all be traced back to the early Mesopotamians.

    Many of these traditions began with the Mesopotamian celebration of New Years. The Mesopotamians believed in many gods, and as their chief god - Marduk. Each year as winter arrived it was believed that Marduk would do battle with the monsters of chaos. To assist Marduk in his struggle the Mesopotamians held a festival for the New Year. This was Zagmuk, the New Year's festival that lasted for 12 days.

    The Mesopotamian king would return to the temple of Marduk and swear his faithfulness to the god. The traditions called for the king to die at the end of the year and to return with Marduk to battle at his side.

    To spare their king, the Mesopotamians used the idea of a "mock" king. A criminal was chosen and dressed in royal clothes. He was given all the respect and privileges of a real king. At the end of the celebration the "mock" king was stripped of the royal clothes and slain, sparing the life of the real king.

    The Persians and the Babylonians celebrated a similar festival called the Sacaea. Part of that celebration included the exchanging of places, the slaves would become the masters and the masters were to obey.

    Early Europeans believed in evil spirits, witches, ghosts and trolls. As the Winter Solstice approached, with its long cold nights and short days, many people feared the sun would not return. Special rituals and celebrations were held to welcome back the sun.

    In Scandinavia during the winter months the sun would disappear for many days. After thirty-five days scouts would be sent to the mountain tops to look for the return of the sun. When the first light was seen the scouts would return with the good news. A great festival would be held, called the Yuletide, and a special feast would be served around a fire burning with the Yule log. Great bonfires would also be lit to celebrate the return of the sun. In some areas people would tie apples to branches of trees to remind themselves that spring and summer would return.

    The ancient Greeks held a festival similar to that of the Zagmuk/Sacaea festivals to assist their god Kronos who would battle the god Zeus and his Titans.

    The Roman's celebrated their god Saturn. Their festival was called Saturnalia which began the middle of December and ended January 1st. With cries of "Jo Saturnalia!" the celebration would include masquerades in the streets, big festive meals, visiting friends, and the exchange of good-luck gifts called Strenae (lucky fruits).

    The Romans decked their halls with garlands of laurel and green trees lit with candles. Again the masters and slaves would exchange places.

    "Jo Saturnalia!" was a fun and festive time for the Romans, but the Christians though it an abomination to honor the pagan god. The early Christians wanted to keep the birthday of their Christ child a solemn and religious holiday, not one of cheer and merriment as was the pagan Saturnalia.

    But as Christianity spread they were alarmed by the continuing celebration of pagan customs and Saturnalia among their converts. At first the Church forbid this kind of celebration. But it was to no avail. Eventually it was decided that the celebration would be tamed and made into a celebration fit for the Christian Son of God.

    Some legends claim that the Christian "Christmas" celebration was invented to compete against the pagan celebrations of December. The 25th was not only sacred to the Romans but also the Persians whose religion Mithraism was one of Christianity's main rivals at that time. The Church eventually was successful in taking the merriment, lights, and gifts from the Saturanilia festival and bringing them to the celebration of Christmas.

    The exact day of the Christ child's birth has never been pinpointed. Traditions say that it has been celebrated since the year 98 AD. In 137 AD the Bishop of Rome ordered the birthday of the Christ Child celebrated as a solemn feast. In 350 AD another Bishop of Rome, Julius I, choose December 25th as the observance of Christmas.

    http://www.chinatravel1.com/chinese/general-pictur...

    http://www.holidays.net/christmas/story.htm

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    聖誕節是基督徒紀念耶穌誕生的一個重要節日。根據聖經記載耶穌誕生在猶太的一座小城--伯利恆。該書記載聖母瑪利亞是因聖神的感動而懷孕,就在與丈夫若瑟返往家鄉時遇上所有的旅店客滿,因此瑪利亞被迫在馬槽裡產下耶穌。據說當耶穌安祥的睡在馬槽裡,在遙遠的東方有三博士追隨天上的一顆明亮星星找到耶穌,並膜拜他。牧羊人在曠野中也聽到有天使的聲音在天上發出,向他們報耶穌降生的佳音。

    耶穌誕生的年份已無從考察,但大多數考古學家都認為應該是在劃分世紀的那一年(即是公元前一年)為其誕生之年。但正確的日期卻無法確定,因此在早期的基督教派便把羅馬帝國密司拉教在十二月二十五日紀念太陽神誕辰改為聖誕節。

    http://hk.geocities.com/merrry_xmas_merry/ 中文的

    http://www.santaland.com/ 英文的

    Source(s): 看了就知道
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