At the age of seven, Carl Friedrich Gauss started elementary school, and his potential was noticed almost immediately. His teacher, Büttner, and his assistant, Martin Bartels, were amazed when Gauss summed the integers from 1 to 100 instantly by spotting that the sum was 50 pairs of numbers each pair summing to 101.
In 1788 Gauss began his education at the Gymnasium with the help of Büttner and Bartels, where he learnt High German and Latin. After receiving a stipend from the Duke of Brunswick- Wolfenbüttel, Gauss entered Brunswick Collegium Carolinum in 1792. At the academy Gauss independently discovered Bode's law, the binomial theorem and the arithmetic- geometric mean, as well as the law of quadratic reciprocity and the prime number theorem.
In 1795 Gauss left Brunswick to study at Göttingen University. Gauss's teacher there was Kästner, whom Gauss often ridiculed. His only known friend amongst the students was Farkas Bolyai. They met in 1799 and corresponded with each other for many years.
Gauss left Göttingen in 1798 without a diploma, but by this time he had made one of his most important discoveries - the construction of a regular 17-gon by ruler and compasses This was the most major advance in this field since the time of Greek mathematics and was published as Section VII of Gauss's famous work, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae.
Gauss returned to Brunswick where he received a degree in 1799. After the Duke of Brunswick had agreed to continue Gauss's stipend, he requested that Gauss submit a doctoral dissertation to the University of Helmstedt. He already knew Pfaff, who was chosen to be his advisor. Gauss's dissertation was a discussion of the fundamental theorem of algebra.
With his stipend to support him, Gauss did not need to find a job so devoted himself to research. He published the book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in the summer of 1801. There were seven sections, all but the last section, referred to above, being devoted to number theory.
In June 1801, Zach, an astronomer whom Gauss had come to know two or three years previously, published the orbital positions of Ceres, a new "small planet" which was discovered by G Piazzi, an Italian astronomer on 1 January, 1801. Unfortunately, Piazzi had only been able to observe 9 degrees of its orbit before it disappeared behind the Sun. Zach published several predictions of its position, including one by Gauss which differed greatly from the others. When Ceres was rediscovered by Zach on 7 December 1801 it was almost exactly where Gauss had predicted. Although he did not disclose his methods at the time, Gauss had used his least squares approximation method.
In June 1802 Gauss visited Olbers who had discovered Pallas in March of that year and Gauss investigated its orbit. Olbers requested that Gauss be made director of the proposed new observatory in Göttingen, but no action was taken. Gauss began corresponding with Bessel, whom he did not meet until 1825, and with Sophie Germain.
Gauss married Johanna Ostoff on 9 October, 1805. Despite having a happy personal life for the first time, his benefactor, the Duke of Brunswick, was killed fighting for the Prussian army. In 1807 Gauss left Brunswick to take up the position of director of the Göttingen observatory.
Gauss arrived in Göttingen in late 1807. In 1808 his father died, and a year later Gauss's wife Johanna died after giving birth to their second son, who was to die soon after her. Gauss was shattered and wrote to Olbers asking him to give him a home for a few weeks,
to gather new strength in the arms of your friendship - strength for a life which is only valuable because it belongs to my three small children.
Gauss was married for a second time the next year, to Minna the best friend of Johanna, and although they had three children, this marriage seemed to be one of convenience for Gauss.
- Anonymous1 decade agoFavorite Answer
Carl Friedrich Gauss(卡爾佛列得瑞奇高斯)七歲開始去讀小學，而且他的潛能馬上被注意到。當Gauss(高斯)認出 1到100並立即加總的時候，讓他的老師--Buttner和助理--，Martin Bartels感到吃驚，加總時是每個使總計成對的數字50到101。
在 1788年時，高斯透過Buttner和 Bartels的幫忙，在Gymnasium開始教育他，即他學習高地德語和拉丁文之處。在接受來自布蘭斯維克(Brunswick- Wolfenbüttel)公爵的薪水後，高斯在 1792 年進入布蘭斯維克法人的學院。在學院中，高斯獨自發現預示法律，二項定理和算術--幾何學的低劣，和二次的相互性法律和主要的數字定理。
在 1795年，高斯離開布蘭斯維克(Brunswick)，而到Gottingen大學學習。高斯有位常嘲笑他的老師叫作Kastner。他唯一的已知好友，是身為學生的Farkas Bolyai。他們在 1799年相遇，且許多年的相處都合得來。
高斯沒有文憑，就在 1798 年離開Gottingen，但在此時，他已做了他最重要的發現，便是老客戶17- gon的建築按照統治者和圓規。這自希臘數學起之後，在這個領域中，是最主要的進步，並且被出版，而使高斯出名，Disquisitiones Arithmeticae 的第 7 節。
高斯回到他在 1799 年獲得布蘭斯維克(Brunswick)的學位。布蘭斯維克的公爵已同意繼續供給高斯薪水後，他請求高斯的博士論文遵從Helmstedt大學。他選擇Pfaff當他的指導教授。高斯的論文是代數學的基本定理討論。
在1801年六月，一個高斯先前已知道二或三年的天文學家--Zach，出版了Ceres軌道的位置，新的 "小的行星" 被G Piazzi一個義大利天文學家在1801年1月1日發現，不幸地，在它在太陽後面消失之前，Piazzi只能觀察它軌道的 9 度。 Zach出版對它的位置的預測，藉著非常不同於其他人的想法，其中包括了高斯。當Ceres在 1801 年十二月 7 日被 Zach 再發現它，那時高斯幾乎已完全預知在哪裡了。雖然他那時沒有揭穿他的方法，但高斯已使用他最少的正方形近似值方法。
在 1802 年六月高斯拜訪了在三月已經調查它的軌道的那年和高斯發現 Athena 神名的 Olbers 。 Olbers 請求 , 高斯被做 Gottingen 的被提議的新的天文台的指導者﹐但是沒有行動被採取。 高斯以 Bessel 開始符合和和索菲 Germain, 他沒有見面到 1825 。
高斯在 1805 年10月9日和Johanna Ostoff 結婚。不在乎第一次有快樂的個人生活，他的恩人--布蘭斯維克(Brunswick)的公爵因與普魯士的軍隊對抗而被殺。 在 1807年，高斯離開布蘭斯維克，而擔任Gottingen天文台指導者的職位。
高斯在 1807 後期中抵達Gottingen。在 1808年，他的父親過世，且一年後高斯的太太 Johanna 在生下他們的第二個兒子之後也過世了，而且是生這個兒子不久後死的。 高斯心碎並寫信要求他給他一個家，數星期後的Olbers，聚集友誼手臂的新力量，該力量是有價值的生活，因為它屬於我的三個小的孩子。
- 1 decade ago