英文的有 >美國政府官方資料 好好利用!!!http://ap.grolier.com/--->美國政府官方資料 好好利用!!!
先點 vice President 進去 你可以看到歷年總統 部長 和第一夫人的詳盡資料
看右上角有四種不同顏色的botten 1.NBK(紫)--小學以上參考 2.G...
以下節錄一下這三位總統的貢獻 政績 生平將不贅述~~
William (Bill) Clinton, at age 46, was the youngest person to be elected president of the United States since John F. Kennedy won election in 1960 at the age of 43. But despite his youth, Clinton entered the White House with considerable experience in executive government. At the time of his election victory in 1992, he had already served for nearly twelve years as governor of Arkansas, his native state. With his rise to the presidency, he was the first of the generation born after World War II (1939-45), the so-called baby boomers, to achieve the country's highest office, succeeding President George Bush
Governor of Arkansas
Two years later, Clinton was elected governor of Arkansas. Then 32, he was the nation's youngest governor. Arkansas voters, however, unhappy with tax increases that Clinton had imposed on gasoline to pay for improving the state's highways, rejected his bid for re-election in 1980. But in 1982, when he ran for governor again, he won easily and went on to win re-election three more times.
The 1992 Campaign
In announcing his intention to seek the 1992 Democratic presidential nomination, Clinton called for a jobs plan to lift the country out of its economic recession, tax cuts for the middle class, and a form of national health insurance. During the campaign, Clinton was pursued by questions about his character. He was attacked by some for evading military service and appearing to cover it up. Nevertheless, he won enough delegates to assure his swift nomination at the Democratic convention in New York City. For his vice-presidential running mate, Clinton chose Senator Albert (Al) Gore of Tennessee.
Capitalizing on the poor state of the nation's economy, Clinton won 370 electoral votes to 168 for his Republican opponent, President George Bush. H. Ross Perot, a Texas billionaire, ran as an independent and made a strong showing.
President: First Term
Soon after taking office, Clinton called for nearly $500 billion in tax increases and spending cuts. Although Republicans and some conservative Democrats opposed his plans to raise taxes, Congress finally gave the new president much of what he had asked for. Clinton also won congressional approval for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and Mexico.
However, one of Clinton's top priorities--health reform--met with stiff opposition. Critics complained that his proposal would cost too much and lead to government interference in the health care system. Clinton had to abandon the idea.
Meanwhile, Clinton devoted considerable time to dealing with allegations of misconduct prior to his election as president. One controversy stemmed from investments that he and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had made in the Whitewater Development Corporation, an Arkansas real estate development firm. The other concerned charges of sexual harassment made by a former Arkansas government employee, Paula Jones.
These issues contributed to the Democratic Party's defeat in the 1994 midterm elections and helped the Republicans gain control of Congress for the first time in 40 years. But later Republican efforts to balance the budget while cutting back spending and reducing taxes led to a shutdown of the federal government. This angered the American people, many of whom sided with President Clinton, who had opposed the Republican plan. He eventually won this struggle, and that success paved the way for his re-election in 1996.
In international matters, Clinton helped bring about an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) concerning self-rule for Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. And in the Balkans, he sent 20,000 American troops to serve as part of an international peacekeeping force.
Clinton easily won re-election in 1996, with 379 electoral votes. But he received only 49 percent of the popular vote running against the Republican nominee, former U.S. senator Robert (Bob) Dole of Kansas, and independent candidate H. Ross Perot.
On the domestic front, the president's popularity benefited from sustained economic prosperity. His first major accomplishment was reaching an agreement with the Republican-controlled Congress on a plan to achieve a balanced budget. Despite tax cuts worth $95 billion, the plan also trimmed $263 billion from federal expenditures. Meanwhile, the number of people receiving welfare dropped, in part because of the welfare reform law Clinton pushed through Congress in 1996.
Seeking to ease racial tensions, Clinton in 1997 launched a year-long campaign of town hall meetings and conferences. He called for reconciliation between the races, defended affirmative action, and pointed out that by the end of the next half-century there would no longer be a majority race in America.
Allegations of misconduct continued to plague the president. In addition to the ongoing investigation into Whitewater and the Paula Jones case, his re-election brought new charges that he and Vice President Gore had engaged in questionable fund-raising activities during the 1996 election campaign. Republicans called for appointment of a special prosecutor. Clinton insisted that he and Gore had acted "within the letter of the law" and urged Congress to enact campaign finance reform laws.
But soon another scandal disrupted Clinton's presidency. This controversy stemmed from charges that he had an improper relationship with a 21-year-old former White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, and then tried to cover it up. Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr, who had been investigating the Whitewater case, launched an inquiry. His probe focused on whether Clinton had committed perjury by denying the affair with Lewinsky in a sworn deposition in the Paula Jones case, and also whether Clinton had tried to get Lewinsky to lie in her own sworn statement in the Paula Jones lawsuit. At first Clinton denied the charges, but when Lewinsky confirmed the affair in testimony before a grand jury, he was forced to admit he had not told the truth. Starr meanwhile issued a report, contending that the president's actions could be grounds for impeachment.
In the 1998 mid-term congressional elections, Democrats won more seats than expected, indicating that a majority of Americans continued to support the president. Nevertheless, on December 19, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice. Only one other president has been impeached--Andrew Johnson in 1866. After a trial in the Senate, the president was acquitted on both the impeachment and perjury charges. However, he faced the possibility of a future indictment on criminal charges connected with the Lewinsky scandal at the end of his term. Despite these difficulties, Clinton was able to reach an agreement with Congress on a program designed to bolster the Social Security system in the long run. In 2000 the Clintons were cleared of any wrongdoing in the Whitewater matter.
Clinton's scandals at home did not prevent him from playing an active role abroad. At a summit meeting in Helsinki, Finland, he persuaded Russian president Boris Yeltsin to accept the expansion of NATO by admitting some former Soviet Bloc countries as members. Following terrorist bombings of U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Clinton unleashed retaliatory strikes at terrorist sites in Afghanistan and the Sudan. He also ordered the bombing of Iraq when Iraq refused to allow the U.N. to inspect its weapons facilities.
In a peacekeeping role, Clinton helped negotiate a Mideast pact between Israeli and Palestinian leaders. Israel agreed to withdraw its troops from land claimed by the Palestinians in return for a promise to stop terrorism against Israel.
Soon after the end of his impeachment trial, Clinton set in motion the biggest military operation of his presidency, joining other NATO countries in a massive bombing campaign against Yugoslavia. The aim was to force Yugoslavian president Slobodan Miloevi to stop attacks on ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo. After ten weeks of bombing, Miloevi agreed to withdraw his forces from Kosovo, and Clinton claimed victory. The United States did not lose a single soldier in combat.
In the last year of his presidency, Clinton made yet another effort to ease Mideast tensions. But at a summit meeting at Camp David, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat failed to reach an agreement on the establishment of a Palestinian state.
Controversy followed Clinton, even after he left the White House, because of his last-minute pardon of a fugitive commodities trader, Marc Rich, whose former wife had contributed generously to the Democratic Party. Nevertheless, Clinton remained in demand as a speaker and Democratic fund raiser. In 2001 he set up an office in Harlem in New York City. In 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life, which became an immediate bestseller. That same year, he successfully underwent quadruple heart bypass surgery just two months before the Clinton Presidential Center opened in Little Rock.
**出處:William A. DeGregorio Author, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents
Reviewed by Robert Shogan
The Los Angeles Times
See also: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Carter, James Earl, Jr.
When we think of Abraham Lincoln, we see him as a poor boy of the frontier, studying by candlelight, working in a country store, splitting logs, striving to make something of himself. We may wonder at his ability to travel from a log cabin to the White House. His story has helped form the American dream--that a person coming from a modest background can attain spectacular success.
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, Jr., achieved that dream. His roots were in the southwestern part of Georgia, where members of his family had struggled to make a living for 150 years. He was the first Carter to finish high school. From such beginnings he went on to become president of the United States.
State Senator and Governor
Carter's interest in politics can be traced at least in part to his father, who had served a year in the Georgia state legislature. In 1962, Carter ran for the state Senate. He lost by a few votes. But when violations of voting rules were discovered, he challenged the results and was declared the winner.
In 1966, Carter first declared himself a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives but then decided to try for the Democratic nomination for governor of Georgia. He lost in the primary election, but he made a good showing. Carter devoted himself to his business and to civic affairs until 1970. Then he tried again for the governorship. He defeated a former governor of the state in the primary and won the election easily.
Perhaps Carter's most important contribution as governor was in increasing efficiency in the state government. Hating waste, he reduced the number of state agencies from 300 to 22. He appointed a considerable number of blacks to state jobs. He also ordered that a portrait of Martin Luther King, Jr., be placed alongside portraits of other famous Georgians in the state capitol building. It was the first portrait of a black to hang in the capitol, a gesture Carter felt was long overdue.
Campaign for the Presidency
Carter announced his candidacy for the presidency late in 1974. He campaigned tirelessly, sought the support of Democratic leaders, and built an efficient political staff. His soft southern drawl and wide smile became familiar across the country. By the time of the Democratic National Convention in New York in the summer of 1976, he had already won enough delegates to assure his nomination. The only question that remained was whom he would pick as the vice presidential candidate. He chose Walter F. Mondale, a liberal senator from Minnesota. In the election, Carter defeated the Republican candidate, President Gerald R. Ford. Carter received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.
The White House Years
The new President adopted a casual style. Carter chose to walk instead of ride down Pennsylvania Avenue after his inauguration. He also requested that the presidential theme, "Hail to the Chief," not be played every time he entered a public place. Many people welcomed this simplicity. But others were critical of Carter's style, which sometimes seemed less than forceful. They wondered how he would deal with the country's problems.
At home, Carter's administration faced major problems in the areas of energy supply and the economy. Soon after taking office, Carter asked Congress to create a new Department of Energy. He proposed legislation to reduce oil consumption, increase U.S. oil production, and encourage the use of other energy sources. Congress approved the new department and, after much debate, some of the legislation.
Inflation soon became the leading economic problem. In 1978, Carter called for voluntary limits on wage and price increases. The limits had little effect. Later, controls were imposed on credit. The government hoped that by discouraging borrowing, it would lessen the rate of inflation.
However, a new gasoline shortage and continuing economic problems brought Carter's popularity at home to an all-time low by July, 1979. In a televised speech, Carter said that the United States was facing a "crisis of confidence." He promised to provide strong leadership, and he outlined a new energy program.
Carter's Foreign Policy.
In foreign policy, Carter often stressed moral principles. His goals, he said, were peace, arms control, economic cooperation, and the advancement of human rights. His efforts toward peace in the Middle East were widely acclaimed. In the fall of 1978, the leaders of Egypt and Israel met with him at Camp David, Maryland, and agreed on basic principles for a peace treaty. A treaty was signed in 1979. But negotiations on details of the peace made slow progress.
Carter concluded new treaties with Panama, giving the country control of the Panama Canal by the year 2000. These treaties were controversial, but they were ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1978. Diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China were established in 1979. In June, 1979, Carter signed a new strategic arms limitation treaty with the Soviet Union. But this treaty met with strong opposition in Congress.
The Iran Crisis and Afghanistan.
At the end of 1979 two issues arose that severely tested Carter's leadership. In November, Iranian militants seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and held the Americans there hostage. One month later, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan to put down an anti-Communist rebellion.
To free the hostages, the United States first tried to negotiate with Iranian leaders, then halted trade. When these measures were not successful, Carter ordered military action, but the mission failed. In response to the Soviet action, Carter asked Congress to delay consideration of the new arms treaty. He limited trade with the Soviet Union and called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympic Games, held in Moscow.
Carter lost the 1980 election to the Republican challenger, Ronald Reagan, who won 489 electoral votes to Carter's 149. On January 21, 1981, the day after Carter left office, the U.S. hostages were freed.
After he left office, Carter wrote several books, established the Carter Center at Emory University and the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum in Atlanta, and worked for Habitat for Humanity, building housing for the poor. He helped monitor elections in developing nations, fostered peace talks in Somalia, met with Communist North Korea's leaders over nuclear site inspections, and led a U.S. delegation to Haiti to help reinstate an elected president who had been overthrown by the military. In 2002, Carter made a historic trip to Cuba, where he pressed President Castro on his human rights record and called on the United States to end its 40-year-old economic embargo against the island nation. Later that year, Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for his lifetime dedication to peace, democracy, human rights, and social development.
**出處:Godfrey Sperling, Jr.
Chief, Washington News Bureau
The Christian Science Monitor
Reagan, Ronald Wilson
The life of Ronald Wilson Reagan is a story of unlikely successes. Born into a poor family, he came of age during the hard economic times of the Great Depression of the 1930's. Yet he was able to achieve great success in two quite different fields--as an actor and in politics. Reagan's political career began when, in 1964, after his acting career had ended, he was elected governor of California. He then twice sought--and twice failed to gain--the Republican nomination for the presidency, before winning the nomination and the election in 1980. At the age of 69, he was the oldest person ever to become president of the United States.
In 1942, during World War II, Reagan entered the Army as a second lieutenant. He was disqualified for combat duty because of poor eyesight, and he spent the next four years making military training films. He then returned to acting. After his Army experiences, Reagan, then a Democrat, became more politically conservative. He served as president of the Screen Actor's Guild from 1947 to 1952. He later appeared on television as the host of "General Electric Theater" and "Death Valley Days." Reagan had married Jane Wyman, an actress, in 1940. They had a daughter, Maureen, and an adopted son, Michael. The marriage ended in divorce in 1948. In 1952, Reagan married another actress, Nancy Davis. They had two children, Patricia (Patti) and Ronald (Ron).
Governor of California
Reagan's entry into politics was helped by a speech he gave in 1964 that brought him to the attention of powerful Republicans. They urged him to run for governor of California.
In the 1966 election, Reagan faced Edmund G. (Pat) Brown, who had been a popular Democratic governor for eight years. Reagan was critical of state government spending and welfare payments that he believed were too high. He won the election by nearly 1 million votes. Four years later, Reagan easily won re-election. He served as governor until 1975.
The Road to the Presidency
Reagan first sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 but lost to Richard M. Nixon. In 1976, Reagan narrowly lost the nomination to President Gerald R. Ford.
The 1980 Campaign.
Reagan immediately began his campaign for the 1980 nomination. In the primary contests, he called on his skills as a speaker to win support. His views seemed to reflect growing conservatism in the country, and he won the nomination easily. His nearest opponent, George Bush, was chosen as his vice presidential running mate.
In the election campaign, Reagan favored reducing total government spending while increasing the amount spent on defense. He also supported large tax cuts and state or local control of programs such as welfare. And he felt that the United States should take firmer stands against Communism.
In the election, Reagan overwhelmingly defeated the Democratic candidate, President Jimmy Carter, running for re-election. Reagan won 489 electoral votes to Carter's 49.
His First Term.
Reagan's presidency began dramatically in 1981. Minutes after he was sworn in, Iran released 52 Americans who had been held hostage for more than 14 months during the Carter administration. Then, in March, Reagan was shot in Washington, D.C., by John W. Hinckley, Jr. But Reagan soon recovered.
Congress passed Reagan's requests for cuts in taxes and in some government programs. He also won increased funds for defense. By 1982, however, the country was in an economic recession. The economy improved in 1983. But the increased defense spending and tax cut had led to a record budget deficit. Democrats attacked Reagan for cutting social welfare programs and called for reduced defense spending and a tax increase in order to lower the deficit.
Reagan's appointment in 1981 of Sandra Day O'Connor as the first woman justice of the U.S. Supreme Court was a popular one. But the administration's support for prayer in the public schools and its opposition to abortion aroused much controversy.
In 1983, Reagan sent U.S. Marines to Lebanon as part of a peacekeeping force. The Marines were recalled in 1984, after some 240 had been killed in a terrorist attack. Reagan also sent U.S. troops to Grenada in 1983, to prevent what the administration saw as a Cuban attempt to take over the Caribbean island nation. The president denounced the left-wing Sandinista government of Nicaragua as a threat to peace in Central America, and he repeatedly sought military aid for the anti-Sandinista guerrillas, known as contras.
The 1984 Election.
At the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Reagan and Vice President Bush were easily renominated. Their Democratic opponents were former vice president Walter F. Mondale and Congresswoman Geraldine A. Ferraro. Reagan won a sweeping victory, receiving 525 electoral votes to 13 for Mondale.
Second Term: Domestic Issues.
Reagan underwent successful surgery for cancer in 1985. His call for extensive changes in the federal income tax laws helped bring about passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Congress also passed a major immigration bill that year. Reagan made two Supreme Court appointments in 1986--Associate Justice William Rehnquist as U.S. Chief Justice and Antonin Scalia as an associate justice. Nominees Robert Bork and Douglas Ginsburg failed to win a Supreme Court seat in 1987. A third nominee, Anthony Kennedy, won approval.
A stock market crash in 1987 raised questions about the nation's economic health. A new bill to balance the federal budget became law in 1987, but the huge deficit continued to trouble the government. In 1988, Congress approved a new cabinet post, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Senate approved a free-trade pact with Canada.
Reagan ordered the bombing of military targets in Libya in 1986 in retaliation for its role in international terrorism. His policy of reflagging (flying the U.S. flag on) Kuwaiti oil tankers and providing them with a U.S. naval escort in the Persian Gulf led to clashes with Iran in 1987. The president's greatest diplomatic achievement was the 1987 treaty with the Soviet Union banning intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF), approved by the Senate in 1988.
The Iran-Contra Affair proved embarrassing to the administration. Congressional hearings in 1987 revealed that presidential aides had acted illegally by selling weapons to Iran and diverting the money to Nicaraguan rebels. For more information, see Iran-Contra Affair.
Reagan left the White House in January 1989 and was succeeded as president by his former vice president, George Bush. In 1994 it was revealed that Reagan was suffering from Alzheimer's disease. He died on June 5, 2004, at the age of 93.
**出處:James O. Bell
Los Angeles Times
任期： 1993年1月20日 -
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任期： 1977年- 1981年
詹姆斯·厄爾·卡特(James Earl Carter，Jr），俗稱吉米·卡特（Jimmy Carter）,1924年10月1日出生)是美國的第39任總統。他早年一直在軍隊...
任職時間: 1981年1月20日 -
逝世地: 加州洛杉磯Bel Air
隆納·威爾森·雷根（Ronald Wilson Reagan，1911年2月6日-2004年6月5日，又譯為朗奴·列根或罗纳德·...
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