Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 政治與政府軍隊 · 2 decades ago

關於”飆風”

請告訴我關於法製的RAFALE飆風戰機的詳細資料

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
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    RafaleThe Rafale program is composed of three versions of multi-purpose twin-engine combat aircraft -- the single-seater air version Rafale C, two-seater air version Rafale B and single-seater navy version Rafale M. These three versions are fitted with the same engine, the same navigation and attack system, the aircraft management system and the flight control system. They are all able to perform all types of missions from ground attack to air superiority.The first production aircraft Rafale B1 flew for the first time 04 December 1998 and was delivered to the French Air Force. Firm orders by the French Government are now up to a total of 61 aircraft to be delivered from 1998 to 2005. The total programme for France, Air Force and Navy, is set at 294 aircraft.Directly derived from the slightly smaller RAFALE A demonstrator, the three versions of the RAFALE retain all those qualities which have today been proven in flight : 750 kt, 9 g/-3.6 g, 32° maximum angle of attack, 115 kt approach speed, take off and landing in less than 400 meters. These qualities and performances stem from the "delta-canard" aerodynamic concept combining a delta wing and an active foreplane judiciously located in relation to the wing so as to optimize aerodynamic efficiency and stability control without impeding the pilot's visibility. Moreover, shapes and materials have been continuously selected to minimized the aircraft observability to both electro-magnetic and infra-red sensors.The Rafale C is a multirole fighter with a fully integrated weapons and navigation systems, making use of the latest technology and is capable of outstanding performance on multiple target air-to-air missions and air-to-surface missions deep behind enemy lines.The two-seater Rafale B retains most of the elements of the single-seater version, and its weapon and navigation system is exactly the same; the Rafale B can perform any operational mission with a lon pilot or with a crew consisting of two pilots or of one pilot and a weapons system operator.The Rafale M, a single-seater designed for seaborne use, carries the same weapon and navigation system. Its airframe has been designed for aircraft-carriers but retains most of the elements of the other versions.SpecificationsCountry FranceTypeInterceptCrewSingle or twin seaterengine2 x 16550 lb.BME20950 lb.Max ramp weight49560 lb.CeilingnaTake-off landing< 1300 ftCombat Radius1882 kmIn-Flight RefuelingYesInternal Fuel4250 kgExternal stores13215 lb. to 17620 lb.Air version 14 hard pointsNavy version 13 hard pointsSensorsRDX LD/SD radar, FLIR, LRMTS, RWR, Advanced bombsightDrop Tanks2000 L Drop tank with 1598 kg for 188nm of rangeArmamentCannon: 1 30mm DEFA 554Mica, R.550 Magic 2, BGL 400

    圖片參考:http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europ...

    Sources and ResourcesDassault Aviation : Rafale C  

  • 2 decades ago

    Babel Fish Translation:

    在歐洲考慮怎樣做Eurofighter 颱風在80 年代初期, 達薩爾是世界專家關於設計successfull 之前並且"Legendaire" 三角洲飛過了海市蜃樓戰鬥機在世界, 多數世界的空軍惡夢從50 年, Rafale familly 是藝術這個狀態的自然兒子, 特別是海市蜃樓4000, Rafale 被下令替換法國空軍Jaguars 和海軍烈士和超級Etendards 和海市蜃樓2000 年, 海市蜃樓IV "核武器" 和Recce; 為早期的發展歷史, 參見1990-91 和更加早期的珍妮的; 第一班飛行Rafale A 原型(F-ZJRE) 1986 年7月4 日; Rafale 節目的2,000th 出□, 1994 年9月5 日。一點國際(Avion de Combat Europeen) 1987 年GIE 設定由達薩爾・Aviation, SNECMA 、Thomson-CSF 和達薩爾Electronique, 部分吸引國際夥伴。生產發射正式地首先被批准, 1992 年12月23 日, 。Rafale B 和Rafale M 定購了1993 年3月26 日。四個preproduction 航空器, 作為下: 加速最現代的操作的戰鬥機的節目在世界上, 早期的Rafales 為海軍ares 對SU0 攔截機標準, 缺乏ASMP, 盔甲登上的視域、OSF 和聲音命令控制; 明確的SU1 攻擊版本隨後將被提供得替換超級Etendards 。空軍對最初的航空器計劃相似地有限的能力, 但成本節約的措施被運用在1995 包括第一交付的延擱到2005 年, 何時充分的標準航空器將是可利用的。達薩爾提議出口Rafale MK2 與Aesa 天線航空器從1999.Rafale 是可使用在海軍並且顯示所有他的efficience 從三叉戟D'or 鍛煉開始, 忍受自由2001 年阿富汗, 美國海軍的鍛煉反對F18's 和Tomcat 的清楚地展示了Rafale 優勢在世界最佳的海軍噴氣機。 變形: Rafale B: 最初計劃的雙重控制, 二位子版本為法國空軍; 重量350 公斤(772 磅) 更多比Rafale C; 3 到百分之5 更高的費用比Rafale C 。被開發成完全操作的變形為或pilot/WSO 或唯一試驗作戰能力。 Rafale C: 唯一位子作戰版本為法國空軍。詳細的描述適用於Rafale C, 除了表明的地方。 Rafale D: 生產版本獲得的原始的配置從; 現在` Rafale Discret ' (秘密) 普通名字對於法語空軍版本。 Rafale M: 唯一位子carrierborne 戰鬥機; navalisation 重量懲罰, 610 公斤(1,345 磅); 起飛重量從現有的法國載體Foch 對16,500 公斤(36,376 磅) 被限制; 有百分之80 結構和設備公共與Rafale C, 百分之95 系統公共。法國節目海軍的財政份額削減了1991 年從25 到百分之20 。 Rafale 是唯一一個在世界被設計同時執行地面攻擊和空對空作戰使命。另外, 它的能力疊加作用譬如在視覺範圍(BVR) 空對空生火之外在非常低高度滲透階段期間, 印象深刻給Rafale 寬廣的多角色能力, 與它的高度生存能力一起。 設計特點: 極小的重量和容量結構舉行極小的費用; 稀薄, 中間登上的三角洲翼與移動的謬傳; 各自的固定, kidney-shaped 進水閘沒有震動錐體。設計在飛機機架、集成系統和引擎附近的modulars 零件完成提供21th 世紀第5 架世代戰鬥機的最佳的低營業成本。 起落架: 水力可撤回的三輪車類型由Messier Dowty 提供, 以唯一mainwheels 和孿生, 水力steerable, 降落輪。所有輪子縮回今後。設計為衝擊以3 m (10 ft)/s, 或6.5 m 的垂直的速度(21 ft)/s 在海軍版本, 沒有飄動。 能源廠: 二SNECMA M88-2b A/B 推了75 kN (17 000 磅) 乾燥引擎推力50 kN (11 250 磅) A/B 具體燃料消費1,7 kg/daN.h 乾燥引擎推力具體燃料消費0,8 kg/daN.h 空氣流動率65 kg/s 山雀(渦輪入口溫度) 1 850 K (1 577.C) 壓力比率24,5 旁路比率0,3 M88-3 A/B 推了90 kN 乾燥引擎推力60 kN A/B 具體燃料消費1,7 kg/daN.h 乾燥引擎推力具體燃料消費0,8 kg/daN.h 空氣流動率72 kg/s 山雀(渦輪入口溫度) 1 850 K (1 577.C) 壓力比率27 旁路比率0,3

    最大規定值在生產航空器裡。內部坦克為超過5,325 公升(1,406 美國加侖; 1,171 淘氣鬼加侖) 燃料。燃料系統由盧卡斯Air Equipement 和天頂航空; 設備由Intertechnique 。一1,700 公升(449 美國加侖; 374 淘氣鬼加侖) 下落坦克在中心線; 2,000 公升(528 美國加侖; 440 淘氣鬼加侖) 下落坦克在各座艙內underwing 的定向塔; 並且/或者1,300 公升(343 美國加侖; 286 淘氣鬼加侖) 坦克在各座中心underwing 的定向塔。最大外在燃料6,600 公升(1,742 美國加侖; 1,452 淘氣鬼加侖) 。迫使加油在7 分鐘之內, 或4 分鐘為內部坦克唯一。被修理的(可拆的) 在飛行中加油的探針在所有版本。 適應: 駕駛只, 在SEMMB (馬丁麵包師) 特別anti-G Mk 16 zero/zero 排斥位子, 斜倚在29. 或32. Max. One-piece Sully 產品Speciaux 水泡角度windscreen/canopy, 取決於對右舷打開斜向一邊。機蓋金子上漆減少雷達反射。 空的重量大約10 噸, Rafale 符合14 hardpoints (13 在Rafale M) 。五這些被設計為外在坦克和重的軍用品。總外在裝載容量是9 噸- 幾乎20,000 pounds.Rafale's 模件和規範化的設計服從與Stanag 1760 年允許用戶集成軍用品從非法國來源。 航空電子學: Provision 為超過780 公斤(1,720 磅) 航空電子學設備和機架。 Comms: EAS V/UHF 和TRT 土星Uhf.radios 。隊對講機; 六分儀Avionique 聲音被激活的無線電控制和聲音警報警告系統。Thomson-CSF/CNI SB 25.A IFF 。Chelton 天線。雷達: GIE 雷達(Thomson-CSF/Dassault Electronique) RBE2 看down/shoot 下來雷達, 能同時跟蹤八個目標"地面或空氣", 以優先權的自動威脅評估和分派。 飛行: SOCRAT VOR/ILS; SAGEM 斯格碼RL90 INS (接口以載體的航海在Rafale M); Thomson-CSF 北卡羅來納12.E 戰術空軍導航系統; 斯格碼RL-90 圓環laser 電羅經INS; Thomson-CSF/CNI AHV 17 無線電高度表和SFIM/Dassault Electronique 飛行記錄儀。六分儀Avionique GPS 。 駕駛艙: 數字顯示燃料, 引擎, 水力, 電子, 氧氣和其它系統資訊關於被瞄準的眼睛級顯示和二側向多功能touch-sensitive 顏色LCD 顯示由Sextant 。第四個駕駛艙屏幕是頭級作戰navigation/sensor 顯示。六分儀Avionique CTH3022 寬角度, 全息照相的HUD 合併Thomson TTD Optronique OTA 1320 CCD 照相機和記錄器。Sextant/Intertechnique Topsight 盔甲登上的視域。 駕駛艙在細節: 駕駛艙有實踐節流孔和2 根側向棍子控制(HOTAS) 。駕駛艙被裝備以head-up, 寬角度全息照相的顯示從Thales Avionique, 提供航空器控制資料、使命資料和生火暗示。被瞄準的, 多圖像頭級顯示禮物作戰情況和傳感器資料, 和二觸摸屏幕側向顯示顯示航空器系統參量和使命資料。飛行員並且有盔甲登上的視域和顯示。CCD 照相機和在機上記錄器記錄head-up 顯示的圖像在使命過程中。 使命: Thomson-TRT/SAT OSF electro-optical 傳感器。MIDS (多功能資訊發行系統) datalink (等效與JTIDS/Link 16) 。各種各樣的偵察、ECM 、FLIR 和laser 指定莢。自衛: 光譜雷達警告和ECM 隨員由Thomson-CSF 、達薩爾Electronique 和Matra 。Thomson TTD Optronique DAL (Detecteur d'Alerte Laser) 系統, 許多報告闡明, 法語使用活躍取消在Rafale, 但這強烈被分類。 軍備: 所有Rafale 的版本符合Giat 產業Defa 791 30 毫米大砲, 射彈2,500 個發每分鐘。在港引擎輸送管的邊。十四個Alkan 外在商店附件: 二在機體中心線, 二在發動機進口之下, 二橫跨後機身, 六個下面翼和二在翼梢。向前中心線位置刪除了在Rafale M. Normal 外在裝載6,000 公斤(13,228 磅); 最大可允許, 8,000 公斤(17,637 磅) 。在罷工角色, 一Aerospatiale ASMP 隔離核武器。在攔截角色、八雲母AAMs (與IR 或活躍歸航) 並且二underwing 的汽油箱; 或六隻雲母和5,700 公升(1,505 美國加侖; 1,254 淘氣鬼加侖) 外在燃料。在空對地角色, 典型地十六227 公斤(500 磅) 炸彈, 二隻雲母和二1,300 公升(343 美國加侖; 286 輛淘氣鬼加侖) 坦克; 或二臺亞帕基印第安人隔離武器分配器、二隻雲母和5,700 公升外在燃料; 或FLIR 莢, Atlis laser 標誌符莢, 二1,000 公斤(2,205 lb)laser 引導了炸彈, 二AS.30L laser ASMs, 四隻雲母和選拔1,700 公升(449 美國加侖; 374 淘氣鬼加侖) 坦克。在反艦角色, 二反艦飛彈或計劃的答復海撇取的飛彈, 四隻雲母和4,300 公升(1,135 美國加侖; 946 淘氣鬼加侖) 外在燃料。

    Before europeans was thinking about how to make the Eurofighter Typhoon in early 80's, Dassault was world expert about designing successfull and "Legendaire" Delta winged Mirages fighters around the world, the nightmare of most world's air forces since 50 years,the Rafale is the natural son of this state of arts familly, especially the Mirage 4000,Rafale was ordered to replace French Air Force Jaguars and Navy Crusaders and Super Etendards and Mirages 2000, Mirage IV "nuke" and Recce; for early development history, see 1990-91 and earlier Jane's; first flight of Rafale A prototype (F-ZJRE) 4 July 1986; Rafale programme's 2,000th sortie, 5 September 1994. ACE International (Avion de Combat Europeen) GIE set up in 1987 by Dassault Aviation, SNECMA, Thomson-CSF and Dassault Electronique, partly to attract international partners. Production launch officially authorised, 23 December 1992,. First Rafale B and Rafale M ordered 26 March 1993. Four preproduction aircraft, as under:

    To accelerate programme of the most modern operational fighter in the world, early Rafales for navy ares to SU0 interceptor standard, lacking ASMP, helmet-mounted sight, OSF and voice command controls; definitive SU1 attack version will be delivered subsequently to replace Super Etendards. Air force plans similarly limited capability for initial aircraft, but cost-saving measures applied in 1995 included postponement of first deliveries to 2005, when full standard aircraft will be available. Dassault offers export Rafale MK2 with Aesa antenna aircraft from 1999.Rafale is operational in the navy and shown all his efficience starting with Trident D'or exercise,Enduring Freedom 2001 Afghanistan, exercises against F18's and Tomcat's of the US navy clearly demonstrated the Rafale superiority over world best navies jets.

    VARIANTS:

    Rafale B: Originally planned dual control, two-seat version for French Air Force; weight 350 kg (772 lb) more than Rafale C; 3 to 5 per cent higher cost than Rafale C. Being developed into fully operational variant for either pilot/WSO or single pilot combat capability.

    Rafale C: Single-seat combat version for French Air Force. Detailed description applies to Rafale C, except where indicated.

    Rafale D: Original configuration from which production versions derived; now `Rafale Discret' (stealthy) generic name for French Air Force versions.

    Rafale M: Single-seat carrierborne fighter; navalisation weight penalty, 610 kg (1,345 lb); take-off weight from existing French carrier Foch limited to 16,500 kg (36,376 lb); has 80 per cent structural and equipment commonality with Rafale C, 95 per cent systems commonality. Navy's financial share of French programme cut in 1991 from 25 to 20 per cent.

    Rafale is the only one in the world designed to simultaneously perform ground attack and air-to-air combat missions. In addition, its ability to superimpose functions such as beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air firing during the very-low-altitude penetration phase, gives Rafale impressively broad multirole capabilities, along with its high degree of survivability.

    DESIGN FEATURES:

    Minimum weight and volume structure to hold minimum cost; thin, mid-mounted delta wing with moving canard; individual fixed, kidney-shaped intakes without shock cones. Design around modulars parts of airframe , integrated systems and engines was done to provide the best low operating costs of 21th century 5th generations Fighters.

    LANDING GEAR:

    Hydraulically retractable tricycle type supplied by Messier Dowty, with single mainwheels and twin, hydraulically steerable, nosewheels. All wheels retract forward. Designed for impact at vertical speed of 3 m (10 ft)/s, or 6.5 m (21 ft)/s in naval version, without flare-out.

    POWER PLANT: TWO SNECMA

    M88-2b

    A/B thrust

    75 kN (17 000 lb)

    Dry engine thrust

    50 kN (11 250 lb)

    A/B specific fuel consumption

    1,7 kg/daN.h

    Dry engine thrust specific fuel consumption

    0,8 kg/daN.h

    Air flow rate

    65 kg/s

    TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature)

    1 850 K (1 577°C)

    Pressure ratio

    24,5

    Bypass ratio

    0,3

    M88-3

    A/B thrust

    90 kN

    Dry engine thrust

    60 kN

    A/B specific fuel consumption

    1,7 kg/daN.h

    Dry engine thrust specific fuel consumption

    0,8 kg/daN.h

    Air flow rate

    72 kg/s

    TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature)

    1 850 K (1 577°C)

    Pressure ratio

    27

    Bypass ratio

    0,3

    Maximum rating in production aircraft. Internal tanks for more than 5,325 litres (1,406 US gallons; 1,171 Imp gallons) of fuel. Fuel system by Lucas Air Equipement and Zenith Aviation; equipment by Intertechnique. One 1,700 litre (449 US gallon; 374 Imp gallon) drop tank on centreline; 2,000 litre (528 US gallon; 440 Imp gallon) drop tank on each inboard underwing pylon; and/or 1,300 litre (343 US gallon; 286 Imp gallon) tank on each centre underwing pylon. Maximum external fuel 6,600 litres (1,742 US gallons; 1,452 Imp gallons). Pressure refuelling in 7 minutes, or 4 minutes for internal tanks only. Fixed (detachable) in-flight refuelling probe on all versions.

    ACCOMMODATION:

    Pilot only, on SEMMB (Martin-Baker) special anti-G Mk 16 zero/zero ejection seat, reclined at angle of 29° or 32° Max. One-piece Sully Products Speciaux blister windscreen/canopy, hinged to open sideways to starboard. Canopy gold-coated to reduce radar reflection.

    With an empty weight of about 10 tons, Rafale is fitted with 14 hard points (13 on the Rafale M). Five of these are designed for external tanks and heavy ordnance. Total external load capacity is over 9 tons – nearly 20,000 pounds.Rafale's modular and standardised design compliant with the Stanag 1760 allows users to integrate ordnance from non-French sources.

    AVIONICS:

    Provision for more than 780 kg (1,720 lb) of avionics equipment and racks.

    Comms: EAS V/UHF and TRT Saturn UHF radios. TEAM intercom; Sextant Avionique voice activated radio controls and voice alarm warning system. Thomson-CSF/CNI SB 25A IFF. Chelton aerials. Radar: GIE Radar (Thomson-CSF/Dassault Electronique) RBE2 look-down/shoot-down radar, able to track up to eight targets "ground or air" simultaneously, with automatic threat assessment and allocation of priority.

    Flight: SOCRAT VOR/ILS; SAGEM Sigma RL90 INS (interface with carrier's navigation on Rafale M); Thomson-CSF NC 12E Tacan; Sigma RL-90 ring-laser gyro INS; Thomson-CSF/CNI AHV 17 radio altimeter and SFIM/Dassault Electronique flight recorder. Sextant Avionique GPS.

    Cockpit: Digital display of fuel, engine, hydraulic, electrical, oxygen and other systems information on collimated eye-level display and two lateral multifunction touch-sensitive colour LCD displays by Sextant. Fourth cockpit screen is head-level tactical navigation/sensor display. Sextant Avionique CTH3022 wide-angle, holographic HUD incorporating Thomson TTD Optronique OTA 1320 CCD camera and recorder. Sextant/Intertechnique Topsight helmet-mounted sight.

    Cockpit in details:

    The cockpit has hands-on throttle and 2 lateral sticks control (HOTAS). The cockpit is equipped with a head-up, wide-angle holographic display from Thales Avionique, which provides aircraft control data, mission data and firing cues. A collimated, multi-image head-level display presents tactical situation and sensor data, and two touch-screen lateral displays show the aircraft system parameters and mission data. The pilot also has a helmet-mounted sight and display. A CCD camera and on-board recorder records the image of the head-up display throughout the mission.

    Mission: Thomson-TRT/SAT OSF electro-optical sensors. MIDS (Multifunctional Information Distribution System) datalink (equivalent to JTIDS/Link 16). Various reconnaissance, ECM, FLIR and laser designation pods. Self-defence: Spectra radar warning and ECM suite by Thomson-CSF, Dassault Electronique and Matra. Thomson TTD Optronique DAL (Detecteur d'Alerte Laser) system, many reports stated that French use active cancellation on Rafale, but this is strongly classified.

    ARMAMENT:

    All versions of Rafale are fitted with the Giat Industries Defa 791 30-mm cannon, which fires 2,500 rounds per minute. in side of port engine duct. Fourteen Alkan external stores attachments: two on fuselage centreline, two beneath engine intakes, two astride rear fuselage, six under wings and two at wingtips. Forward centreline position deleted on Rafale M. Normal external load 6,000 kg (13,228 lb); maximum permissible, 8,000 kg (17,637 lb). In strike role, one Aerospatiale ASMP standoff nuclear weapon. In the interception role, up to eight Mica AAMs (with IR or active homing) and two underwing fuel tanks; or six Micas and 5,700 litres (1,505 US gallons; 1,254 Imp gallons) of external fuel. In the air-to-ground role, typically sixteen 227 kg (500 lb) bombs, two Micas and two 1,300 litre (343 US gallon; 286 Imp gallon) tanks; or two Apache standoff weapon dispensers, two Micas and 5,700 litres of external fuel; or FLIR pod, Atlis laser designator pod, two 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)laser-guided bombs, two AS.30L laser ASMs, four Micas and single 1,700 litre (449 US gallon; 374 Imp gallon) tank. In the anti-ship role, two Exocet or projected ANS sea-skimming missiles, four Micas and 4,300 litres (1,135 US gallons; 946 Imp gallons) of external fuel.

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