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Anonymous asked in 藝術與人文歷史 · 2 decades ago









6 Answers

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    Mary the QueenMary came to the throne under the most popular demonstrations of enthusiasm that had ever existed for an English monarch. On July 19, 1553 the Lord Mayor of London proclaimed Mary as Queen. The crowds were so thick in the street that he had trouble making his way thorough. It seemed all of London was out of doors cheering. All the church bells started ringing and the fountains in the streets ran with wine. Dancing and singing went on into the night when bonfires were lit. An Italian visitor wrote that the whole city shone with lights.


    The fear that overcame Mary after the Wyatt rebellion led to the burning of the Protestants. Up until that time she had appeared lenient and fair but her attitude changed completely when she sensed that she could never feel completely safe until all heretics were shown the outcome of disobedience. The majority of the populace had changed religion under the assumption that it was their duty to do as their sovereign told them. But they had great respect for those who were willing to be martyrs and did not see them on the road to Hell as Mary did, but on the road to Heaven. They lined the roads as the condemned made their way to the stake and asked their blessing. Instead of showing the people the error of heresy it turned them into supporters of the heretics and many began to speak out against the burnings. Those who showed sympathy to the heretics were also to be arrested. New Protestant leaders began to put their own ideas about the rights of sovereigns in their pamphlets and forwarded the concept that if a ruler was wicked it was the duty of the people to resist.Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London, Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester, John Philpot, Archdeacon of Westminster, John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester and John Rogers, a married priest, were all burnt at the stake by Mary's order. Although the martyrs came from all social classes none were from the Nobility. New victims were condemned every day. Most of these were ordinary villagers and not preachers or intellectuals. These simple people had been confused by years of religions swinging back and forth. The sight of these people going bravely to the stake was very powerful. To the onlookers they seemed to defy the flames and welcome them. The former Protestant Archbishop Cranmer was burned in November of 1555 dramatically thrusting his right hand into the fire as a symbol of his dismissing the recantation he had written Queen Mary.There was widespread anger at these burnings. Not so much because they were the burning of Protestants, this had gone on through Henry VIII's reign, but because Mary had interfered with the right the condemned had to recant. The original purpose of heresy trials was to force the heretic to recant. Even when he was at the stake he was given one last chance to be given pardon if he would recant. Authorities realized that the recantation was not usually sincere but the display of a public submission satisfied them. Mary though, was not satisfied with these submissions and after a year repealed the right the condemned had to recant. This was very unpopular and added a horrible element to the burnings. Now there was no way, once condemned, to save their lives.Many escaped abroad. At first Mary turned a blind eye to these refugees, she did not try to capture them nor prevented their friends from sending them money. She even allowed the Protestant Bishop of Exeter and translator of the Bible, to leave England for Denmark. But when the burnings began she sent agents to spy on the refugees and money was not allowed to be sent to them. From abroad the refugees wrote pamphlets to undermine Mary's authority. The most sensational was John Foxe's "First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women" which was aimed at Mary as well as her Scottish counterparts, Mary of Guise and Mary Queen of Scots. Mary ordered that anyone found in possession of these books would be put to death without trial.Mary began to see that these acts to uproot heresy were failing. Instead of bringing people back into the fold of the Catholic church the executions were creating resentment and rebellion. Instead of helping the church she was harming it and the knowledge of this caused her much grief. Her only joy now focused on her marriage and the hope of a Catholic heir.

    2005-04-11 23:08:30 補充:


  • 2 decades ago













    從『回顧歷史...』一直到『...永遠打上了"血腥瑪麗"的烙印。』這部分引用美國作家 邁克爾‧法夸爾所著的《瘋子、傻子、色情狂》,這本書滿有趣的,裡面有很多西洋史中歷史人物的奇聞軼事,有興趣的話可以去看看

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago


  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago



    她是著名的亨利八世的長女 母親是西班牙亞拉岡的凱瑟琳


    與凱瑟琳離婚並與羅馬教廷分裂 使英國改信類似新教的英國國教 之後又陸續娶過數個王后 卻只生了一個早夭的兒子

    他去世後 瑪麗登基為王

    身為虔誠天主教徒的她 為了使英國再變回舊教國家

    大肆殘殺新教徒 因而被稱為血腥瑪麗


    雖然殺了不少人 但事實上她是一個憂鬱而嚴肅的女人




    Source(s): 知識
  • 2 decades ago


  • ?
    Lv 7
    2 decades ago

    血腥瑪莉是vodka+番茄汁+tabasco(辣)+worcester(像醋)...滿好喝的..=========雞尾酒“血腥瑪麗”的由來,血腥佳人, 歐洲真實的事件……血腥佳人, 歐洲真實的事件……女人,是美麗的動物,美女,更是美麗中的美麗。為了讓自己更美麗,女人用了各種各樣千奇百怪的方法。但是最血腥的美容方法,恐怕是以下這位女士的秘方了。傳說中,歐洲有四大鬼宅。其中有一座鬧得最凶的鬼宅,坐落在布達佩斯的郊外。這是一幢中世紀古堡,它的主人,就是當時豔傾一時的李•克斯特伯爵夫人。在她的一生中,為她決鬥而死的青年貴族,據說超過了100 個。甚至在她60歲那年,兩位浪漫的青年詩人因為得不到她的垂青,而舉劍自殺。是什麼樣的魅力才讓他們瘋狂至此?她究竟美麗到什麼地步呢?據野史中記載,在一次李•克斯特伯爵舉行的盛大晚宴上,她一身飄逸長裙,出現在眾人眼前。黑色長髮在空中飄舞,兩顆寶石般的 眸蘊涵著攝人心魄的光芒,火紅色長裙就像流動的烈焰一樣,包裹著她白玉似的修長身軀,整個人宛如一團移動的火之精靈。當她停下腳步的時候,銀白色的月光從窗外照進來,淡淡的籠罩著她。在坐的紳士們個個情迷意亂,他們搞不清楚,這位李•克斯特伯爵夫人究竟是順著月光而下凡的天使,還是將要循著月光飄向天宮的聖女。她的美麗,據說保持了近50年,而她的美麗秘方,實在令人恐怖萬分。她用鮮血沐裕而且只用純潔少女的鮮血。她相信,只有浸泡在她們純潔的血液中,方能不斷吸取其中的精華,而讓她永葆青春。每次洗澡前,她還要喝下至少半升的血液,她管這叫“內洗”。她洗一次澡,至少要殺掉兩個少女。就這樣,在長長而黑暗的50年裏,一共有2800名少女慘被殺害,所有的屍體全部埋在她私人的浴室底下。這也是她的主意,因為她相信,少女們的魂魄能夠驅走衰老和遲鈍。由於常用血液洗澡,她身上總帶著濃烈的血腥氣。但她卻從不用任何香水掩蓋,任其自然。美麗的外貌和血腥的氣味相結合,竟然產生裏一種無可名狀的妖異魅力,使無數青年貴族為之傾倒。一時之間,李•克斯特伯爵夫人的豔名遠播歐洲大陸,連法皇路易十四也不遠千里,拜倒在其石榴裙下。有一款雞尾酒的名字叫“血腥瑪麗”便由此而來。一直到後來,大革命爆發。憤怒的群眾將已經快70高齡的李•克斯特伯爵夫人抓住,群情激憤之下,大家將她活活燒死在她自己的浴室中。並且封掉了古堡。從此,一代豔后香消玉殞。但是,在此後的400 年裏,每逢月圓之夜,古堡裏就會傳出一陣陣如海潮般幽怨的慟哭,仿佛是千鬼夜哭,萬魂哀鳴,連10裏之外布達佩斯的居民都能聽見。他們不堪其擾,請來了神甫,術士驅魂作法,結果連凡蒂岡和耶路撒冷的大師們都無能為力。最後,教皇無奈,只能將這塊地方列為禁地,禁止凡人出入。(迄今為止,在布達佩斯的郊外,這幢古堡依然貼著教皇的封櫻離它不遠處,當地政府寫了塊牌子:遊人勿進)整個中世紀歐洲有很多詭異恐怖的怪談,但李•克斯特伯爵夫人則被當之無愧的稱為頭號“血腥佳人(瑪莉)”。

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