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Cherish asked in 政治與政府軍隊 · 2 decades ago





3 Answers

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    不知道你懂不懂英文如果懂得話下面的資料可以參考一下 War I [The Great War]The shots that rang out on the streets of Sarajevo in June 1914 changed the world. A young Serbian assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. In retaliation, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Decades of simmering nationalistic hostilities quickly were unleashed. The principal belligerents on one side were Austria-Hungary and Germany, on the other, Britain, France, Russia, and, in 1917, the United States. Surpassing in scale all previous military conflicts, it was called simply "The Great War" -- until a war on a vastly greater scale erupted two decades later, whereupon it was demoted to simply the first of the World Wars. The Long PeaceIn 1815, representatives of the Great Powers, most notably Prince Metternich of Austria, had met in Vienna to engineer a lasting postwar settlement. The resulting "Concert of Europe" was based on the restoration and maintenance of a European balance of power. After much diplomatic maneuvering it was agreed that France, its monarchy restored, would be readmitted to European society as a full partner rather than remaining a pariah state. War would be avoided by an informal balance of power among five roughly equal Great Powers: France, Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia. The great-power concert crafted in Vienna functioned remarkably well for nearly a century, interrupted only by the Revolutions of 1848 and the Crimean War of 1854-56. Even during the long peace, though, forces were at work to shatter the European balance. Conservative regimes attempted to restrain liberalism and nationalism forcibly, most notably when they crushed the Revolutions of 1848. Resentment smoldered throughout Europe. New ambitious regimes no longer saw their national interests served by the provisions of the Vienna settlement and attempted forcible revision of its terms. Meanwhile, the ongoing Industrial Revolution resulted in a shift of economic power to Central Europe, frightening the other nations and eroding the Continental balance of power. Additionally, the rapid pace of technological innovation added frightening new dimensions to warfare. Victory in the mid-nineteenth-century wars went to the power which best harnessed new technology. With altered circumstances, peace did not long endure. Under the masterful leadership of Otto von Bismarck, Germany emerged as Europe's dominant power. The Prussian Chancellor used a series of limited wars against Denmark, Austria and France from 1864 to 1871 to weld the patchwork of German states into a powerful, unified nation. Bismarck was expert at limiting the scope of war to achieve limited objectives. He initiated war only after diplomatically isolating his opponent and terminated it before other European powers were tempted to intervene. Moreover, he never yielded to his Generals bent on total victory. Prussian forces, for example, could have crushed and occupied the Austrian state in 1866, but the Iron Chancellor declined to destroy a potentially useful ally. Although Bismarck claimed never to have read Clausewitz, his use of war for political aims ranks as, perhaps, history's best example of Clausewitzian principles in action. After 1871 and the Treaty of Frankfurt, a rigid and precarious system of bipolar alliances and alignments temporarily restored the military balance among the major European states. The great-power Concert, however, was gone forever. Bismarck's policy was to avoid provocations, reassure neighbors, and divide potential adversaries. The result--even with two small and one fairly important war--was a period of general peace. Unfortunately, Bismarck's less-talented successors lacked his ability to impose a favorable peace on Europe or the desire to do so. After Emperor Wilhelm II fired the Iron Chancellor in 1890, the Continent drifted inexorably toward war. Between 1890 and 1914, Europe drifted from a loose multipolar arrangement to a rigid and precarious bipolar system. Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was a young power, sensitive about status and slights. It was not democratic: unification under Prussian auspices had meant the crushing of the once-powerful liberal German patriotic movement. Partly for this reason--the need to burnish legitimacy--Berlin was eager to show its people that it could be a "great power." After Bismarck's forced retirement in 1890, German leaders, spurred by the new Emperor, Wilhelm II, decided to embark on a more ambitious policy that would enhance Germany's position and prestige as both a continental and a world power. The Kaiser and his advisers embarked on a program of national assertion, based on jealously of England and the vague demand for a "place in the sun" that quickly stirred conflict. Brash and even reckless, the Emperor's policy resulted in the creation of countervailing alliances. To compound the problem, Bismarck's successors proved much less adept than the Iron Chancellor at manipulating the balance of power to German advantage. Where Bismarck had usually been able to dominate Wilhelm I in matters of policy, Wilhelm II invariably held the upper hand after 1890. Germany’s actions stimulated international rivalries and provoked a series of great-power confrontations that ultimately resulted in war. Berlin embarked on the building of a High Seas Fleet, based on the famous "risk fleet" concept, under which no power would want to risk battle with a German navy which could not beat them, but could harm them seriously. Aimed at intimidating Britain from participation in any European war, Bismarck had warned that building a navy would drive Britain into an alliance with France, which is exactly what happened. Berlin sought confrontations, as with France over Morocco. The German calculation was either that the other Powers would back down in a direct confrontation, or that Germany would win a lightning victory by dint of operational brilliance. The outbreak of World War I -- and Britain's rapid decision to join in -- disproved the first part of that calculation; four years of tragic bloodshed ending in German defeat disproved the second. WarOn 28 June 1914 the Austro-Hungarian successor to the throne, Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by a member of a band of Serbian conspirators. On 01 August 1914 war errupted between Central Powers [Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire] and the Entente [France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, Russia and Serbia]. The War was caused in part by a military doomsday machine, devised by war planners who lacked firm political guidance. General war came about because statesmen lost control over their military machines during an international confrontation. Before the War, Germany’s military leaders faced the difficult strategic problem of preparing for a two-front war. Their solution was to develop an audacious strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. In an attempt to obtain a quick military decision, Germany employed the Schlieffen Plan at the War’s outbreak. When this quick decision failed to occur, Germany’s leaders found themselves embroiled in a grinding war of attrition against a powerful coalition of opposing states. World War I, "the Great War," lasted from 1914 through 1918. The Western Front was stalemated by static trench warfare, in which hundreds of thousands of men died in senseless attacks, from the beginning of the war until the armistice of November 1918. The First World War saw force used as a bludgeon rather than as Bismarck's precise instrument of policy. It was a conflict fought on an unprecedented scale, whose results bore little relation to its original purposes. Major developments in industrial capabilities, transportation, communications and weaponry vastly enlarged the geographic scale of war, yet stifled tactical and strategic innovation. Military and political leaders groped for ways to adapt to new conditions, incorporate new technology, restore decisiveness to the battlefield, and bring costs and benefits into proportion. The Great War placed hitherto unimagined strain on the economic and social fabric of the warring states. War plans had been founded on the expectation of a short, decisive Bismarckian conflict. Instead, the warring powers found themselves in a bloody stalemate along hundreds of miles of static battle lines. Unwilling and unable to alter their political objectives, participants resigned themselves to a lengthy war of attrition. Leaders on both sides recognized that as compromise became less and less acceptable, complete collapse was the probable outcome for the losing governments. Britain employed its sea power to defeat Germany through a blockade. With the exception of submarines, the German fleet spent most of the war in port as a "fleet-in-being" -- holding down a portion of the Royal Navy battle fleet. The German High Seas Fleet finally ventured out at the end of May 1916 to battle the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, but neither side scored a clear victory. At battle’s end, each fleet had lost several ships, but the British suffered more heavily in tonnage, by almost double. As late as 1918 the Grand Fleet deployed the bulk of its assets to escort convoys to Norway. The German decision to embark on an all-out submarine offensive to defeat Britain proved to be short-sighted. The Lusitania was torpedoed on 07 May 1915 with 1200 lives lost; 139 Americans were among them. By using submarines in this way, Germany’s leaders eventually provoked a war with the United States. The German Army first used chlorine gas against the French Army at Ypres on 15 April 1915. Both sides found that phosgene was more effective than chlorine, and by the end of the Great War nearly 100,000 soldiers had been killed by poison gas, and over ten times that number injured. America and the WarWhile armies moved across the face of Europe, the United States remained neutral. With the onset of World War One, the United States, despite its declared neutrality, rapidly emerged as the leading participant in the international munitions trade. During the period of its neutrality -- August 1914 to March 1917 -- the United States exported approximately $2.2 billion in war supplies to Europe. In 1916, the United States shipped more than $1 billion of arms in a single year. (The enormity of the American presence in the international arms market of that period is suggested by the fact that by 1920 the United States accounted for more than 52% of global arms exports.) The fact that the United States, despite its proclaimed neutrality, was engaged in arms trade during the war served as an indirect cause of United States entry into the war. The British, seeking to stop the movement of arms to the Central Powers, established a naval blockade to deny aid to the German forces. Germany, in retaliation, resorted to increased submarine warfare, and on 17 May 1915 sank, among other ships, the British liner Lusitania with a loss of 1,000 lives, many of them American. The Germans claimed that the ship was being used to carry war materiel to Britain and was thus a legitimate target of war. Nonetheless, the attack was seen by the Americans as wanton perdition on an unarmed merchant vessel, and this event accelerated the movement to entanglement in the broils of Europe. Coincidentally, German submarine warfare began to erode American confidence in its "sea barriers." As an item of further note, a prominent international lawyer of that period, Charles Hyde, petitioned Secretary of State Lansing to reduce the United States arms trade. Hyde noted that during World War One, the United States was becoming "a base of supplies of such magnitude that unless retarded, the success of armies, possibly the fate of empires, may ultimately rest upon the output of American factories." However, President Wilson saw this American output of munitions as "an arsenal of freedom." In 1916 Woodrow Wilson was elected President for a second term, largely because of the slogan "He kept us out of war". On the last day of January 1917 the patience of President Woodrow Wilson broke, when Kaiser Wilhelm notified the American people that unrestricted submarine warfare would be commenced on the following day. Diplomatic relations were severed on 3 February, but the President decided to wait until the next overt act before asking Congress to declare war. He did not have long to wait. In February and March, several US ships were sunk and in March, the British Secret Service obtained the famous Zimmerman telegram, detailing German plans against the US under which Mexico was to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The note was deciphered and passed on to the Americans. Wilson sent his war message to the Senate on 02 April 1917 and war was declared four days later. The US mobilized more than 4,000,000 troops, over 2,000,000 of whom were sent to battlefields in France under the command of Major General John J. Pershing. US Army and US Marine Corps units were integrated into joint infantry divisions. The Allies used combined campaigns successfully to wage land warfare in an environment of mass warfare and advanced technology. On the other hand, Germany, like Napoleonic France a hundred years earlier, failed properly to coordinate its land and sea power and eventually lost the war. The 1918 offensive of the German army, carefully planned at Berlin, was intended to overcome the Allies before America could bring any effective number of her troops. To meet the successive German drives, which began 21 March 1918, the Allies under General Foch adopted the tactics of a slow and cautious retreat. In the July drive, General Foch felt himself strong enough to inaugurate a policy of counter-attack. The German's crown prince threw his forces forward in a slant across the Marne. Successive French-American attacks imperiled the position of the German army and brought about its retreat. The addition of America's forces to the war effort ended the bloody stalemate. German forces were undefeated in the field, although the allied nations had had some significant successes. But Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated and German politicians were left to sue for peace. The 11th Hour of the 11th Day of the 11th MonthWhen the fighting came to an end with the Armistice of November 11, 1918, more than eight million soldiers, including more than 50,000 Americans, had lost their lives. An estimated 12-million civilians also perished. During the Great War, German's losses were over 1,700,000 killed and over 4,200,000 wounded [out of a total population of over 65 million], while France suffered over 1,300,000 deaths and over 4,200,000 wounded. The percentages of pre-war population killed or wounded were 9% of Germany, 11% of France, and 8% of Great Britain. The United States suffered one-third of one percent (0.37%) of its population killed or wounded. An estimated total of 12-million civilians perished. The war ended without clear solutions, leaving future military and political leaders to grapple with a host of strategic, tactical and technological dilemmas. The peace settlement of 1919 remains a controversial topic. The international order created by this settlement lasted barely twenty years. The 1919 Versailles settlement failed to establish a stable international order, illustrating that winning a war does not always mean winning the peace. In the aftermath of the war, huge changes occurred. The center of wealth transferred from Europe to the United States; the political map of Europe was significantly redrawn; and Germany was left in financial shambles, its people driven to the brink of starvation - a situation that helped lead to the rise of Adolf Hitler and, ultimately, World War Two. The fact that the United States ranked high among the world’s leading arms exporters caused a great controversy that was reflected in much public debate and discussion throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s. Books of that period mirrored the American public’s concern about this unwanted, yet thriving arms industry. Examples of the literature of that period which nagged the American conscience included such titles as: Merchants of Death: A Study of the International Armaments Industry; Iron, Blood and Profits; War for Profit; and Death and Profit. Continuing debate about America’s role as an arms merchant saw the establishment in the 1930s of a special Senate Munitions Investigating Committee, known as the Nye Committee, after its Chairman, Senator Gerald P. Nye (Republican from North Dakota). The Committee’s charter called for an investigation of the international arms trade to determine if a commercial profit motive was the primary cause of the continued sustenance of war. The investigation, conducted from 1934 to 1936, also sought to determine whether the arms trade could be regulated under existing laws and treaties, and whether a government monopoly in arms production was a practical alternative. As Senator Nye, an avowed isolationist, interpreted the Committee’s mandate, he concluded that the way to stop war was to take away the opportunity for private gain. His personal convictions influenced the Committee to recommend the nationalization of the United States arms industry; a minority opinion held out for close government control rather than nationalization, however. Although the concept of nationalization was subsequently rejected, greater government control and oversight over the United States arms industry was an outcome of the Nye Committee’s efforts. This included the establishment of a Munitions Control Board. A further recommendation of the Committee was to seek the international adoption of arms controls, but after some ineffectual multinational efforts, the international arms trade remained unchecked. One accompanying feature of the Nye Committee findings was an increased United States public sentiment for withdrawing from world affairs and returning to America’s characteristic isolationism. Despite a resurgence of isolationism and the limited results of the Nye Committee, however, little impact was made on American involvement in the international arms trade. In fact, in 1936 the United States ranked third in world arms sales, immediately behind France and Great Britain, a position it was to hold until the outbreak of World War Two.  

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago








    1‧ 列強經濟利益衝突

    a﹞ 自工業革命後,英國成為頭等經濟大國。

    b﹞ 法國和徳國等歐洲國家也爭相發展工業,以期確保國力持續發展,及在


    c﹞ 為了進一步發展工業,歐洲各國於十九世紀末紛紛為本國尋求商品市場


    d﹞ 在十九世紀末,英、法等國已建立許多殖民地,而新成立的徳國也矢志與列強平起平坐,結果發生了嚴重的鬥爭。

    e﹞ 爭奪殖民地被視為「國家榮譽」的一種角力。

    2‧ 極端民族主義滋長

    a﹞ 到了十九世紀末,民族主義漸走向極端。

    b﹞ 極端民族主義者鼓吹國民對國家絕對效忠,支持國家對外擴張,以添國


    c﹞ 徳國和匈帝國鼓吹「泛日耳曼主義」主張向西歐、東歐和南歐拓展。d﹞ 俄國提出「泛斯拉夫主義」,想把東歐、南歐所有斯拉夫人居住的地區,


    3‧ 各國競相擴軍備戰

    a﹞ 由於歐洲列強間之關係日趨緊張,各國都不斷増加軍備開支,提升武質 素,軍備競賽,日趨激烈。

    b﹞ 在軍事技術方面,許多新式武器相繼發明。例如:烈性炸藥、手榴彈、機關槍、戰鬥機、魚雷乃至潛水艇等。列強甚至爭相建造「無畏艦」。

    c﹞ 這種海上的爭霸,以英國和徳國最為劇烈。

    d﹞ 然而,這不但未能使參與者感到更為安全,反而進一步使國際形勢更為緊張。

    4. 對立的軍事集團形成

    a﹞ 普法戰後,徳國深恐法國報仇,而匈則想對付俄國,二者便訂立軍事同盟。意大利也於1882年加入,組成「三國同盟」。

    b﹞ 後來英國為了保護自己的利益,也先後和法、俄簽訂協約。稱為「三國協約」。

    c﹞ 上述兩大軍事集團互相猜忌和充滿敵意。集團成員國間有任何衝突,都


    d﹞ 所以,可以這様說:「兩大對立軍事集團的出現使歐洲成為世界大戰的


    III‧ 導致大戰爆發的國際衝突


    1‧ 大戰前北非地區的國際衝突

    a﹞ 第一次摩洛哥危機﹝1905 – 1906﹞

    b﹞ 第二次摩洛哥危機﹝1911﹞

    c﹞ 意土戰爭﹝1911 – 1912﹞

    2‧ 大戰前巴爾幹半島上的國際衝突


    a﹞ 波斯尼亞危機﹝1908﹞:


    b﹞ 兩次巴爾幹戰爭﹝1912及1913﹞


    3‧ 大戰的導火線:塞拉耶佛事件﹝1914年6月﹞

    a﹞ 1914年6月28日,當匈帝國皇太子斐迪南大公夫婦親臨波斯尼亜首府塞拉耶佛檢閱軍隊時,被塞爾維亞槍殺。

    b﹞ 史上稱為塞拉耶佛事件,是大戰的導火線。

    IV‧ 大戰的爆發

    1‧ 斐迪南大公遇刺後,匈向塞爾維亞發出了最後通牒。

    2‧ 至8月4日,一場、塞之間的地區衝突已演變成第一次世界大戰。

    V‧ 大戰的經過

    1‧ 參戰陣營

    a﹞ 同盟國

    b﹞ 協約國

    VI‧ 大戰的結果

    1‧ 巴黎和會召開


    2‧ 凡爾賽條約

    a﹞ 戰勝國和徳國在巴黎的凡爾賽宮簽訂了「凡爾賽條約」。

    b﹞ 條款極為苛刻。徳國「須承大戰的一切責任」和「徹底裁減軍備」。

    VII‧ 大戰的影

    1‧ 重大傷亡與經濟破壞

    a﹞ 第一次世界大戰為期四年多。

    b﹞ 參戰國家達三十一個,涉及五大洲十五億人口。

    c﹞ 交戰方直接動員的兵力共六千五百萬人,其中至少八百五十萬人陣亡,大約二千萬人受傷。

    d﹞ 財物損失共達三千三百多億美元。

    2‧ 世界政治局勢巨變

    a﹞ 傳統帝國瓦解


    b﹞ 歐洲版圖改變


    c﹞ 美國等國崛起


    3‧ 科技突飛猛進及軍事格局改觀

    a﹞ 在第一次世界大戰中,交戰方應用了多種新型武器,包括毒氣、烈性炸藥、重機槍、坦克、潛水艇、戰鬥機,以及各種電訊設備。

    b﹞ 新科技產品的應用,打破了昔日「前線」和「大後方」的界線。因此說,第一次世界大戰標誌了「總體戰」的誕生。

    4‧ 婦女地位大為提升

    a﹞ 大部份男性被召入伍,各國政府紛打破傳統,鼓吹婦女出外工作。

    b﹞ 到大戰結束,婦女對國家的貢獻獲得一致好評。因此,她們的地位得以提升。

    5‧ 國際合作組織成立


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  • ?
    Lv 6
    2 decades ago








    六磅殺傷式加農砲 --- 同盟國

    榴彈砲--- 協約

    歌德是轟炸機 --協約



    駱駝機 同盟

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