Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 藝術與人文歷史 · 1 decade ago

有關圖坦卡門的資料

我想要有圖坦卡門的資料拜託知道的說一下,大概A4兩面的份量即可,非常非常急,知道的拜託說一下

Update:

我是要英文的,知到拜託說一下

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    古埃及神話中創世說和宇宙起源說,流傳至今者,多出於祭司的編織或精心的改鑄,最典型者屬下列五地區:赫利奧波利斯、孟斐斯、赫爾摩波利斯、底比斯、埃斯奈。

    這些神學系統由於源自不同的地區,因而各有特色。但各個系統的創世諸說,均與‘努(Nun)’─混沌的黑水有關;希羅多德也在《歷史》中述說,統一埃及首代王美尼斯在位時期,整個埃及除了底比斯地區外,為一片沼澤。由此可見,埃及的創世神話顯然與尼羅河泛濫以及河水退去後生機煥發不無關連。

    一、赫利奧玻利斯( Heliopolis )的創世說

    據說,宇宙間始而一片幽暗,沒有任何生氣。大地是無邊無際的瀛水,即‘努(Nun)’。水中出現了一個Ben ben丘阜,於是有了陸地。一朵荷花赫然而現,綻開的花中出現一個嬰兒,這便是太陽─拉。初升的太陽驅散黑暗,照亮寰宇。世間逐漸有了生命。

    另有一說,據《死者之書》所述,太陽神拉是生於一巨卵。此卵為巨鳥‘Benu’生於混沌Nun中隆起的Ben ben丘阜上。 拉神出生後,按照自己的模樣思於心,於是,諸神相繼出世。拉神首先從口中吐出兩神,即空氣─舒(Su)和水氣─泰芙努特(Tefnut);空氣和水氣結合,生了天─努特(Nut)和地─蓋布(Geb)。接著,拉神的眼淚落在地上,人遂生於其淚水。

    As an aspect of Atum, the Benu bird was said to have flown over the waters of Nun before the original creation. According to this tradition, the bird came to rest on a rock from which its cry broke the primeval silence and this determined what was and what was not to be in the unfolding creation.

    According to the Pyramid Texts, Bennu bird flew to Heliopolis, an ancient city near Cairo, where, at dawn, he alighted on the Benben, an obelisk representing a ray of the sun. After fashioning a nest of aromatic boughs and spices, he was consumed in a fire and miraculously sprang back to life. The capstone placed at the top of an obelisk or a pyramid is associated with the Bennu. Called a pyramidion or the Bennu, it is a symbol of rebirth and immortality.

    Ben Ben - An obelisk or conical shaped object representing the first ray of light that touched the earth, dispelling the dark chaos of Nun. A ben ben, possibly of meteoritic substance, was enshrined in the ancient cult city of Heliopolis and was associated with Atum.

    Bennu - A large blue heron or phoenix believed to greet the deceased upon entering the heavenly realms symbolizing rebirth. The large bird is mythically associated with the ben ben and first appeared upon the primordial mound that arose from the chaotic waters of Nun.

    二、 孟斐斯的創世說

    卜塔(Path)是孟斐斯的工匠之神,也是世界的創造之神,他是先天地之生而生,在世界還沒有發生之前就已經存在了。 卜塔通過‘心’和‘言’獲得力量,他以‘心中思之,口中道出’的方法生出創世八神。然後與這八位神祇創造視力、聽力、呼吸,以使心有所知;而舌頭,它重覆心所構思的事,於是卜塔宣讀所有東西的名字,地和天、人、動物、植物相繼誕生。

    緊接著,卜塔再以言創造‘卡’(ka,靈魂)。善者給以生,罪者給以死;任何勞作,任何技藝,手之動作,腳之行走,一切器官的運作,無不據心之所思和言之所述而產生。

    卜塔創造一切事物和一切神之後,心滿意足,於是,他又造城鎮,創立‘諾姆’(古埃及的行政單位,相當於州);為了讓人類確立對神的崇拜,他創造了人的知能,命人類祭祀,建立神廟。從此,諸神及‘卡’均聚集在他的周圍。

    三、赫爾摩波利斯 (Hermopolis) 的創世說

    在最早的時候,世界是一片混沌不明,而後有四對男女神祇出現,他們分別是地─蓋布,天─努特,空氣─舒,太陽─阿圖姆、拉(Atum-Ra),黑暗─庫克和烏特克,無垠─胡赫和哈烏赫特庫克。這八位代表“黑暗、深邃、不可知、無邊”的自然神,融合在水淵─努恩(Nun)裏,共同創造了世界。

  • 1 decade ago

    Tutankamun’s Life

    Tutankhamun, or better known as King Tut, was a pharaoh who accomplished little in his life. He did not expand Egypt’s borders nor enjoy triumphant victories like the many pharaohs before him; however, he is the most recognized and probably the most famous pharaoh today. But why is he so famous? This answer can be attributed to the discovery of his tomb and his elaborate treasure.

    King Tut’s tomb was a major discovery of the 19th century. It was discovered November 4, 1922 in the Valley of the Kings by Howard Carter. It was a phenomenal discovery that made headlines across the world. Up until the discovery of King Tut’s tomb, it was believed that all royal tombs had been robbed and drained of their treasure.

    For the first time, a tomb, which was almost intact, had been discovered and remained hidden from robbers for thousands of years. The tomb revealed an elaborate lifestyle that many people could only dream about as well as providing clues and insight into King Tut’s life and how he lived.

    Even though little is known about Tutankhamen’s life, we do know that he was given the throne at a young age, which it has been estimated that he was about eight or nine years old when this happened. During the time that this occurred, Egypt was in turmoil due to his father’s religious movement. His father, which is believed to be Akhenaten, had changed the religious system and the old beliefs that had been practiced for hundreds of years before him. This religious change angered many angry citizens and priests. Tutankamen was left with an angry and chaotic Egypt to rule.

    The birth name of Tutankhamen was Tutankhaton, which meant “Living Image of the Aten.” His father, which remains a mystery, is believed to be Akhenaten, although some evidence points to Amenhotp III. His mother remains a mystery as well but she is believed to be Kiya.

    It is thought that Tutankhaton must have had a good childhood. He probably spent his younger years hunting, swimming, and studying. His tomb revealed he enjoyed board games. Like most children, he probably found politics unexciting and went about his environment enjoying leisurely activities. Because he was a child, he probably had an ignorant view about his father’s teachings and politics. He was also believed to be an ill child due to the many walking canes that were found inside his tomb.

    After his father’s death, Tutankaton was given the throne. He was wed to his half-sister Ankhensenpaaton, the daughter of Nefertiti and Akhenaten. After acquiring the throne he began to uphold his father’s beliefs, which was the worship of one god -- the Aton. A few years later Tutankaton started to bring back gods that were forbidden by Akhenaten. He soon changed his name to Tutankhamen along with changing his wife’s name to Ankhesenamun. Their names were changed to reflect their beliefs towards Amun and probably to ease the angry priests who missed their old Egypt. They soon decided to leave their father’s capital Amarna and relocated to a new capital in Memphis and Thebes. This movement was probably suggested by Aye to show the Egyptians and priests that things were slowly returning to the original ways.

    With the ancient beliefs restored and the movement of the new capital, King Tutankhamen threw lavish parties to show his support for Amun. Tuankhamen was only a child while the old gods were being reinstated, but could a child make decisions of this magnitude at such a young age?

    It doesn’t appear so, and it appears that his vizier Aye most likely made major decisions for him. Ay and Hermhab were probably the sole drive behind the throne. Could this be why old gods were reinstated and King Tut changed his name? It could have been a great possibility due to the records left behind, which showed Egypt was in a poor state after Akhenaten.

    Sometime during his tenth year of reigning, Egypt was at war with the Hittites. During this confrontation Tutankhamen suddenly died. How he died remains a mystery; however, it’s believed he was murdered. King Tut had not left a male heir to the throne and the children that he did have were stillborn. So Ay, who was a high official in Akhenaten’s court staked his claim as pharaoh. He ruled for only 4 years and died shortly after acquiring the throne. King Tut died at around eighteen or nineteen years old.

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