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Anonymous asked in 藝術與人文詩詞與文學 · 2 decades ago

何謂''犬儒''.........??

何謂''犬儒''...........什麼又是''犬儒學派''............

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  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
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    何謂犬儒??

    有關「犬儒」一詞的語源,應與犬儒學派之集會地點Cynosarges有關,而Cynosarges又源於西臘字母(kunikos,犬),請看以下說明:

    一、

    CYNICS,

    a small but influential school of ancient philosophers. Their name is variously derived from the building in~ Athens called Cynosarges, the earliest home of the school, and from the Greek word for a dog (nlwe), in contemptuous allusion to the uncouth and aggressive manners adopted by the members of the school………

    資料來源:

    1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica

    http://66.1911encyclopedia.org/C/CY/CYNICS.htm

    二、

    Word History:

    A cynic may be pardoned for thinking that this is a dog's life. The Greek word kunikos, from which cynic comes, was originally an adjective meaning “doglike,” from ku n, “dog.” The word was probably applied to the Cynic philosophers because of the nickname ku n given to Diogenes of Sinope, the prototypical Cynic. He is reported to have been seen barking in public, urinating on the leg of a table, and masturbating on the street. The first use of the word recorded in English, in a work published from 1547 to 1564, is in the plural for members of this philosophical sect. In 1596 we find the first instance of cynic meaning “faultfinder,” a sense that was to develop into our modern sense. The meaning “faultfinder” came naturally from the behavior of countless Cynics who in their pursuit of virtue pointed out the flaws in others. Such faultfinding could lead quite naturally to the belief associated with cynics of today that selfishness determines human behavior.

    資料來源:

    Dictionary. com

    http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=cynics

    三、

    Cynics

    (s n´ ks) (KEY) [Gr.,=doglike, probably from their manners and their meeting place, the Cynosarges, an academy for Athenian youths]…….

    資料來源:

    The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

    http://www.bartleby.com/65/cy/Cynics.html

    四、

    犬儒學派

    Cynics

    希臘哲學學派之一,活動時期在西元前4世紀到西元6世紀,以其聚會地點Cynosarges得名。蘇格拉底的門徒安提西尼(Antisthenes)被認為是這一學派的創始人,錫諾普(Sinope)的戴奧吉尼斯(Diogenes)則是該派的典型。犬儒學派認為:貧窮、自足、禁欲的生活才是唯一的美德;其與其他學派的區別,主要在於與眾不同的生活方式和態度,而不是其思想體系。該學派影響了斯多噶哲學的發展。

    資料來源:

    大英簡明百科

    五、

    【犬儒學派】

    西元前三八○年,希臘哲學家蘇格拉底的弟子安諦斯提尼斯(Antisthenes)在雅典成立的哲學派別。倡言福德合一,有德即幸福,以簡單的物質生活自甘,藉苦行達於主善,人嘲之為「犬儒學派」。亦稱為「西尼克學派」。

    =====================================================

    犬儒學派:

    犬儒學派約起源於公元前三五零年,"他們的鼻祖為Diogenes,此人因不斷探討'真'人,而聲名大著.就其本質而論,這乃是指順應'自然'生活,而摒棄一切禮俗偽飾.犬儒學派的主要目標是要培養'自足';每一個人都要培養自行滿足其本身需要的能力.-----(西洋文化史Edward Mcnall Bnrns 著 周恃天譯)在今日的英語語義中,犬儒cynic一辭已轉義為對於繁華世俗抱持著一種嘲諷的態度.

    Source(s): 奇摩搜尋
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago

    一個金屬樂團XD

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