? asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago

這段英文是什麼意思(20點)

急件

這段英文是什麼意思(20點),幫我翻譯,如果用翻譯軟體翻的中文文法怪怪的就不給分

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The detergent industry

Their use as detergent additives still represents the

largest application of industrial enzymes, both in terms of

volume and value. The major component is proteases, but

other and very different hydrolases are introduced to

provide various benefits, such as the efficient removal

of specific stains (Table 1). Constantly, new and improved

engineered versions of the ‘traditional’ detergent enzymes,

proteases and amylases, are developed. These new

second- and third-generation enzymes are optimized to

meet the requirements for performance in detergents, the

composition of which is also constantly developed. In

particular, the compatibility of enzymes with detergent

components (i.e. typically stability properties) is addressed,

but their ability to function at lower temperatures has also

been amongst the recently reported improvements. To

save energy, the temperature used in household laundering

and automated dishwashers has been reduced in recent

years. This often results in problems with efficient

cleaning and stain removal that enzyme technology can

help overcome.

Recent examples of second-generation detergent enzymes

include the development of novel amylases that have

enhanced activity at lower temperatures and alkaline pH,

while maintaining the necessary stability under detergent

conditions. These enzymes were developed by the

combined use of microbial screening and rational protein

engineering [6]. Proteases displaying activity at low

temperatures have been isolated from nature, but have

also been evolved in the laboratory by a directed evolution

approach [7]. Furthermore, from a starting material of

26 subtilisin proteases Ness and coworkers [8••] utilized

one round of DNA shuffling to isolate new proteases with

various improved properties. The improvements included

characteristics very relevant for detergent proteases

(i.e. improved activity and stability at alkaline pH).

The most recent introduction of a new enzyme class into a

detergent has been the addition of a mannanase — the

result of a joint development between Procter and Gamble

and Novozymes [9•]. This enzyme helps remove various

food stains containing guar gum, a commonly used

stabilizer and thickening agent in food products.

4 Answers

Rating
  • joseph
    Lv 4
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    洗滌劑產業 工業酵素最大的應用用途之一乃是作為洗滌劑添加劑, 兩個根據 容量和價值。 主要組分是蛋白酶, 但其他常被提及的有容易被水解的優點, 譬如高效率的去汙能力(表1) 。經常做出不同於傳統的改良 洗滌劑酵素的設計, 蛋白酶 和澱粉酵素,的開發。 這些新一代,第二代和第三代酵素被優選 符合表現的要求在洗滌劑, 經常也被開發的構成。 在 特殊性, 酵素的兼容性與洗滌劑 組分(i.e 。 穩定物產) 典型地演講, 但他們的能力起作用在低溫並且有 是在最近被報告的改善之中。 節省能量, 溫度被使用在家庭洗滌 並且自動化的洗碟機被減少了在最近 幾年。 這經常導致有高效率的問題 清潔和酵素技術能的去汙 幫助克服。 第二代洗滌劑酵素最近例子 包括有新穎的澱粉酵素的發展 改進的活動在低溫和鹼性酸鹼度, 當維護必要的穩定在洗滌劑之下 情況。 這些酵素由開發了 對微生物掩護和合理的蛋白質的聯合的用途 設計[ 6 ] 。 蛋白酶 顯示活動在自然低溫狀態下不可行, 但有 並且演變在實驗室裡由被指揮的演變 方法[ 7 ] 。 此外, 從一種原材料何替代品的利用 一圓DNA拖曳隔絕新的蛋白酶 與各種新產品的改良。 改善包括 特徵非常與洗滌劑蛋白酶相關 (這是 改善的活動和穩定在鹼性酸鹼度) 。 新酵素組的最近介紹入a 洗滌劑是額外的田直立狀物質的加法 收效一個聯合開發並賭賭看是否新式酵素能否製造 [ 9? ] 。 這酵素幫助去除各種各樣 食物汙點包含瓜兒豆膠, 一常用 安定器和變厚的代理在食品。

    Source(s): 我不行ㄌ
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago

    The detergent industry

    Their use as detergent additives still represents the

    largest application of industrial enzymes, both in terms of

    volume and value. The major component is proteases, but

    other and very different hydrolases are introduced to

    provide various benefits, such as the efficient removal

    of specific stains (Table 1). Constantly, new and improved

    engineered versions of the ‘traditional’ detergent enzymes,

    proteases and amylases, are developed. These new

    second- and third-generation enzymes are optimized to

    meet the requirements for performance in detergents, the

    composition of which is also constantly developed. In

    particular, the compatibility of enzymes with detergent

    components (i.e. typically stability properties) is addressed,

    but their ability to function at lower temperatures has also

    been amongst the recently reported improvements. To

    save energy, the temperature used in household laundering

    and automated dishwashers has been reduced in recent

    years. This often results in problems with efficient

    cleaning and stain removal that enzyme technology can

    help overcome.

    Recent examples of second-generation detergent enzymes

    include the development of novel amylases that have

    enhanced activity at lower temperatures and alkaline pH,

    while maintaining the necessary stability under detergent

    conditions. These enzymes were developed by the

    combined use of microbial screening and rational protein

    engineering [6]. Proteases displaying activity at low

    temperatures have been isolated from nature, but have

    also been evolved in the laboratory by a directed evolution

    approach [7]. Furthermore, from a starting material of

    26 subtilisin proteases Ness and coworkers [8••] utilized

    one round of DNA shuffling to isolate new proteases with

    various improved properties. The improvements included

    characteristics very relevant for detergent proteases

    (i.e. improved activity and stability at alkaline pH).

    The most recent introduction of a new enzyme class into a

    detergent has been the addition of a mannanase — the

    result of a joint development between Procter and Gamble

    and Novozymes [9•]. This enzyme helps remove various

    food stains containing guar gum, a commonly used

    stabilizer and thickening agent in food products.

    中文翻譯:

    酵為了飼養企業

    用途的酵當做飼養添加物是也好去垢劑企業

    他們的使用當作去垢劑添加物仍然表現

    最大的應用的工業的酵,兩者根據

    容量和價值. 主要部分是蛋白酵,但是

    其他的和懸殊水解酵被介紹到

    提供多樣的利益,諸如有效率的移動

    的明確的污點 (桌子1). 不斷地,新的和改進

    設計版本的 ‘傳統’ 去垢劑酵,

    蛋白酵和澱粉霉,被發展. 這些新的

    第二- 和第三-一代酵是optimized到

    遇見需求為了履行在去垢劑,

    寫作的即是也不斷地發展. 在

    特殊的,一致性的酵和去垢劑

    成分(i.e. 典型地穩定性財產) 被演說,

    但是他們的才幹活動在較低的溫度有也

    是在中間最近報導改進. 到

    省力,溫度使用於家庭洗燙

    和自動化的洗碗機已被減少在新近的

    年. 這經常結果是問題和有效率的

    清潔和污點酵科技能的移動

    幫忙戰勝.

    新近的例子的另一個-一代去垢劑酵

    包括發展的小說澱粉霉那有

    提高行動在較低的溫度和鹼性的菲律賓,

    一會兒維持必要的穩定性在下去垢劑

    狀況. 這些酵被發展

    聯合用途的微生物的放映和理性的蛋白質

    工程學[6]. 蛋白酵陳列行動在低

    溫度使被isolated從自然,但是have

    也是進化在實驗室附近指引發展

    接近[7]. 再者,從出發材料的

    26 subtilisin蛋白酵海角和coworkers [8••] 利用

    一個回合的脫氧核糖核酸拖曳隔離新的蛋白酵和

    多樣的改進財產. 改進包括

    特徵非常中肯的為了去垢劑蛋白酵

    (i.e. 改進行動和穩定性在鹼性的菲律賓).

    最新近的介紹的新的酵班級進入

    去垢劑已是加的mannanase — 這

    結果的接縫發展之間Procter和冒險

    和Novozymes [9•]. 這酵幫助多樣的

    食物沾污包含古柯豆膠,常用

    穩定器和增稠劑正在吃飯產品.

    Source(s): 網際護照 2004 專業版
  • 2 decades ago

    洗滌劑產業他們的用途作為洗滌劑添加劑仍然代表工業酵素的最大的應用, 根據容量和價值。主要組分是proteases, 但其他和非常不同的水解□被介紹提供各種各樣的好處, 譬如高效率的撤除具體汙點(表1) 。經常, ` 傳統' 洗滌劑酵素, proteases 和澱粉酵素的新和改善的設計的版本, 被開發。這些新第二和第三代酵素被優選符合表現的要求在洗滌劑, 構成經常也被開發。特別是, 酵素的兼容性以洗滌劑組分(即典型地穩定物產) 演講, 僅他們的能力起作用在低溫並且是在最近被報告的改善之中。節省能量, 溫度被使用在家庭洗滌和自動化的洗碟機近年來被減少。這經常導致有酵素技術可能幫助克服的高效率的清潔和去汙的問題。第二代洗滌劑酵素最近例子包括提高了活動在低溫和鹼性酸鹼度, 當維護必要的穩定在洗滌劑情況下新穎的澱粉酵素的發展。這些酵素由對微生物掩護和合理的蛋白質工程學開發了[ 6 的] 聯合的用途。Proteases 顯示活動在低溫與自然被隔絕了, 但並且演變了在實驗室裡由一種被指揮的演變方法[ 7 ] 。此外, 從一種原材料26 subtilisin proteases Ness 和工友[ 8?? ] 被運用的一個圓DNA 拖曳隔絕新proteases 以各種各樣的改善的物產。改善包括特徵非常與洗滌劑proteases 相關(即改善的活動和穩定在鹼性酸鹼度) 。新酵素組的最近介紹入洗滌劑是mannanase - 一個聯合開發的結果的加法在Procter 和賭博和Novozymes [ 9 之間? ] 。這酵素幫助取消各種各樣的食物汙點包含瓜兒豆膠, 一臺常用的安定器和變厚代理在食品。

  • 2 decades ago

    approach [7]. Furthermore, from a starting material of

    26 subtilisin proteases Ness and coworkers [8••] utilized

    one round of DNA shuffling to isolate new proteases with

    various improved properties. The improvements included

    characteristics very relevant for detergent proteases

    (i.e. improved activity and stability at alkaline pH).

    The most recent introduction of a new enzyme class into a

    detergent has been the addition of a mannanase — the

    result of a joint development between Procter and Gamble

    and Novozymes [9•]. This enzyme helps remove various

    food stains containing guar gum, a commonly used

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