Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 科學其他:科學 · 2 decades ago

為什麼有些物質是透明的

請問一下玻璃還有壓克力為什麼是透明的...

有些像PP聚丙烯又為何是半透明的

金屬與有些陶瓷為什麼是不透明的

光為什麼能與不能穿透它們....

可以從分子結構與排列方式去解釋嗎?

有沒有可以參考的資料或書籍可以介紹一下...

我只有高中物化的基礎水準左右....

希望得到清楚的答案...謝謝

Update:

我想知道的是,光在穿透物質的時候的微觀現象。如何穿不透,如何穿得透。謝謝~~~

Update 2:

謝謝回答,再請問一下,光被吸收的意思是被擋下(像人撞牆一樣),還是真的被物質吸收 (像人被牆吸收了) ,若是吸收了是轉換成熱能嗎?

3 Answers

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  • 2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    參考的資料或書籍: Chapter 31 in volume 1 of "The Feynman Lectures on Physics". It's quite easy to read...

    It is basically the interaction between photons and electrons.

    When photons come in contact with these electrons of a material, the following can occur:

    * An electron absorbs the energy of the photon and transforms it (usually into heat)

    * An electron absorbs the energy of the photon and stores it (this can result in luminescence, which is called fluorescence if the electron stores the energy for a short time and phosphorescence if it stores it for long time)

    * An electron absorbs the energy of the photon and sends it back out the way it came in (reflection)

    * An electron cannot absorb the energy of the photon, in which case the photon continues on its path (transmitted)

  • 2 decades ago

    光線進入物質中某部份波長的光會被物質所吸收。特定波長的光能量是某常數的倍數而只能夠被某些特定的分子結構所吸收。

    而光線在物質中行進時會速率變慢; (群速度﹐group velocity, Vg)﹐會受到該物質折射係數(n)的影響而變慢(Vg=C/n)﹐且強度衰減!

    若是可見光部份的波長都不會被物質所吸收且強度可以穿透就形成透明。

  • 2 decades ago

    透明的 是因為光完全穿透過去有白色表示反彈回來其實白色等於透明無色一個透明的玻璃 你把他磨碎 就會變成白色的粉末透不過去的就會反色回來 透過去的會折射 

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