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Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1948年12月10日, 聯合國大會採認世界人權宣言, 請求它的會員國公佈該宣言, 並 "在無政治的考量下, 在各級學校及教育機構裡, 傳播、張貼、研讀及解說其內容。"
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
鑑於對人權的忽視及侮蔑已發展為野蠻暴行, 這些暴行玷污了人類的良心, 而一個人人享有言論和信仰自由並免於恐懼和匱乏的世界的來臨, 已被宣布為普通人民的最高願望,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the commonpeople,
鑑於為使人類不致迫不得已鋌而走險, 對暴政和壓迫進行反抗, 有必要使人權受法治的保護,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
鑑於對這些權利和自由的普遍瞭解, 對於這個誓願的充分實現, 有很大的重要性,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
這一世界人權宣言, 作為所有人民和所有國家努力實現的共同標準, 以期每一個人和社會機構經常銘念本宣言, 努力通過教誨和教育, 促進對權利和自由的尊重, 並通過國家的和國際的漸進措施, 使這些權利和自由在各會員國本身人民及在其管轄下領土的人民中, 得到普遍和有效的承認和遵行。
THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
人人生而自由, 在尊嚴及權利上一律平等。他們賦有理性和良心, 並應以兄弟關係的精神相對待。
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
人人有資格享受本宣言所載的一切權利與自由, 不分種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他見解、國籍或社會出身、財產、出生或其他身份等任何區別。 並且不得因一人所屬的國家或領土的政治的、行政的或者國際的地位之不同而有所區別, 無論該領土是獨立、托管領土、非自治領土或者處於其他任何主權受限的情況下。
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
任何人不得使為奴隸或奴役; 一怍形式的奴隸制度和奴隸現實, 均應予以禁止。
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
法律之前人人平等, 並有權享受法律的平等保護, 不受任何歧視。人人有權享受平等保護, 以免受違反本宣言的任何歧視行為以及煽動這種歧視行為之害。
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
人人完全平等地有權由一個獨立而無偏倚的法庭進行公正的和公開的審訊, 以確定他的權利和義, 並判定對他提出的任何刑事指控。
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
(一)凡受刑事控告者, 在未經獲得辯護上所需的一切保證的公開審判而依法證實有罪以前, 有權被視為無罪。
(二)任何人的任何行為或不行為, 在其發生時依國家法或國際法均不構成刑事罪者, 不得被判為犯有刑事罪。刑罰不得重於犯罪時適用的法律規定。
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
任何人的私生活、家庭、住宅或通訊不得任意干涉, 他的榮譽和名譽不得加以攻擊。人人有權享受法律保護, 以免受這種干涉或攻擊。
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(二)人人有權離開任何國家, 包括其本國在內, 並有權返回他的國家。
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
(一)成年男女, 不受種族、國籍或宗教的任何限制, 有權婚嫁和成立家庭。他們在婚姻方面, 在結婚期間和在解除婚約時, 應有平等的權利。
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
人人有思想、良心與宗教自由的權利; 此項權利包括改變他的宗教或信仰的自由, 以及其單獨或團體、公開或秘密地教義、實踐、禮拜及戒律表示他的宗教或信仰的自由。
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
人人有權享有主張和發表意見的自由; 此項權利包括持有主張而不受干涉的自由, 和通過任何媒介和不論國界尋求、接受和傳播消息和思想的自由。
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(三)人民的意志是政府權力的基礎; 這一意志應以定期和真正的選舉予以表現, 而選舉應依據普遍和平等的投票權, 並以不記名投票或相當的自由投票程序進行。
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
每個人, 做為社會的一員, 有權享受社會保障, 並有權享受他的個人尊嚴和人格的自由發展所必需的經濟、社會和文化方面, 各種權利的實現, 這種實現是通過國家努力和國際合作並依照各國的組織和資源情況。
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(一)人人有權工作, 自由選擇職業, 享受公正和合適的工作條件並享受免於失業的保障。
(三)每一個工作的人, 有權享受公正和合適的報酬, 保證使他本人和家屬有一個符合人的尊嚴的生活條件, 必要時並輔以其他方式的社會保障。
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(一)人人有權享受為維持他本人和家屬的健康和福利所需的生活水準, 包括食物、衣著、住房、醫療和必要的社會服務; 在遭到失業、疾病、殘廢、守寡、衰老或在其他不能控制的情況下, 喪失謀生能力時, 有權享受保障。
(二)母親和兒童有權享受特別照顧和協助。一切兒童, 無論婚生或非婚生, 都應享受同樣的社會保護。
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
(一)人人都有受教育的權利, 教育應當免費, 至少在初級和基本階段應如此。初級教育應屬義務性質。技術與職業教育應普遍設立。高等教育應根據成績而對一切人平等開放。
(二)教育的目的在於充分發展人的個性並加強對人權和基本自由的尊重。教育應謀促進各國、各種族或各宗教集團體間的瞭解, 容忍和友誼, 並應促進聯合國維護和平的各項活動。
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
(一)人人有權自由參加社會的文化生活, 享受藝術, 並分享科學進步及其產生的福利。
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
人人有權享受一種社會的和國際的秩序, 在這種秩序中, 本宣言所載的權利和自由能獲得允份實現。
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
(一)人人對社會負有義務, 因為只有在社會中, 他的個性才可能得到自由和充份的發展。
(二)人人在行使他的權利和自由時, 祗受法律所確定的限制, 確定此種限制的唯一目的在於保證對旁人的權利和自由給予應有的承認和尊重, 並在一個合民主的社會中適應道德、公共秩序和普遍福利的正當需要。
(三)這些權利和自由的行使, 無論在任何情形下, 均不得違背聯合國的宗旨和原則。
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.