The fuselage is the portion of the aircraft which contains the "payload" (i.e. pilots, passengers, and cargo). On a small general aviation aircraft (for example, a Cessna 172) the various parts from nose to tail are:
spinner, propellor, cowl & engine compartment, firewall, fuselage (which includes seats & baggage compartment), empennage, horizontal & vertical stabilizers, elevators & rudders
Some people here include the engine compartment and empennage in their definition of fuselage. There is some ambiguity about whether the engine compartment should be considered part of the fuselage, but the empennage is definitely not part of the fuselage.
Wings, vertical stabilizer, and horizontal stabilizers are fixed, and are called "flight surfaces". Ailerons, flaps, rudder, and elevators can move, and are called "control surfaces" or "flight control surfaces".