what makes a hydrogen bomb explode?????
i want the scientifical way.
- 1 decade agoBest Answer
Hydrogen bomb or H-bomb,weapon deriving a large portion of its energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes. In an atomic bomb, uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms, the remainder of the mass appearing as energy. Unlike this fission bomb, the hydrogen bomb functions by the fusion, or joining together, of lighter elements into heavier elements. The end product again weighs less than its components, the difference once more appearing as energy. Because extremely high temperatures are required in order to initiate fusion reactions, the hydrogen bomb is also known as a thermonuclear bomb.
The first thermonuclear bomb was exploded in 1952 at Enewetak by the United States, the second in 1953 by Russia (then the USSR). Great Britain, France, and China have also exploded thermonuclear bombs, and these five nations comprise the so-called nuclear club—nations that have the capability to produce nuclear weapons and admit to maintaining an inventory of them. The three smaller Soviet successor states that inherited nuclear arsenals (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus) relinquished all nuclear warheads, which have been removed to Russia. Several other nations either have tested thermonuclear devices or claim to have the capability to produce them, but officially state that they do not maintain a stockpile of such weapons; among these are India, Israel, and Pakistan. South Africa's apartheid regime built six nuclear bombs but dismantled them later.
The presumable structure of a thermonuclear bomb is as follows: at its center is an atomic bomb; surrounding it is a layer of lithium deuteride (a compound of lithium and deuterium, the isotope of hydrogen with mass number 2); around it is a tamper, a thick outer layer, frequently of fissionable material, that holds the contents together in order to obtain a larger explosion. Neutrons from the atomic explosion cause the lithium to fission into helium, tritium (the isotope of hydrogen with mass number 3), and energy. The atomic explosion also supplies the temperatures needed for the subsequent fusion of deuterium with tritium, and of tritium with tritium (50,000,000°C and 400,000,000°C, respectively). Enough neutrons are produced in the fusion reactions to produce further fission in the core and to initiate fission in the tamper.
Since the fusion reaction produces mostly neutrons and very little that is radioactive, the concept of a “clean” bomb has resulted: one having a small atomic trigger, a less fissionable tamper, and therefore less radioactive fallout. Carrying this progression further would result in the suggested neutron bomb,. which would have a minimum trigger and a nonfissionable tamper; there would be blast effects and a hail of lethal neutrons but almost no radioactive fallout; this theoretically would cause minimal physical damage to buildings and equipment but kill most living things. The theorized cobalt bomb. is, on the contrary, a radioactively “dirty” bomb having a cobalt tamper. Instead of generating additional explosive force from fission of the uranium, the cobalt is transmuted into cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.26 years and produces energetic (and thus penetrating) gamma rays. The half-life of Co-60 is just long enough so that airborne particles will settle and coat the earth's surface before significant decay has occurred, thus making it impractical to hide in shelters. This prompted physicist Leo Szilard to call it a “doomsday device” since it was capable of wiping out life on earth.
Like other types of nuclear explosion, the explosion of a hydrogen bomb creates an extremely hot zone near its center. In this zone, because of the high temperature, nearly all of the matter present is vaporized to form a gas at extremely high pressure. A sudden overpressure, i.e., a pressure far in excess of atmospheric pressure, propagates away from the center of the explosion as a shock wave, decreasing in strength as it travels. It is this wave, containing most of the energy released, that is responsible for the major part of the destructive mechanical effects of a nuclear explosion. The details of shock wave propagation and its effects vary depending on whether the burst is in the air, underwater, or underground.Source(s): Research Paper
- NeoArtLv 61 decade ago
It is a series of explosions
1. Conventional shaped charges compress soccer-ball wedges of plutonioum, squeezing it together
2. A blast of neutrons hits the compressed ball from a trigger device.
3. The soccer ball does the plutonium atom splitting (fission) dance which releases lots of energy, heat, light, and neutrons.
4. The pressure from the fission of the plutonium along with the neutrons helps push lithium into deuterium atoms (or tritium into deuterium, depending on your mix). This is fusion. Deuterium and tritium are both forms of hydrogen - thus the term "hydrogen bomb".
5. The fusion of hydrogen releases more energy and more neutrons. This by itself would be a pretty deadly bomb but wait, there is more.
6. The fast neutrons being formed by the fusion run outward and smack into the outer casing of the bomb. That casing is uranium. The uranium atoms do their splitting trick (fission). This is a significant bang. For a long time this was secret and yet the bomb test air samples always showed the results of uranium fission.
Hope that was technical enough without being too dry.
- 1 decade ago
Hydrogen bombs are different from uranium and plutonium bombs because hydrogen bombs use nuclear fusion instead of fission. The difference is that fission breaks apart atoms, but the fusion process joins two atoms together. Hydrogen bombs use an unstable hydrogen isotope and force two hydrogen atoms together to create a single helium atom and in the process immense amounts of energy are released in the form of heat, light and radiation (this is what happens in the sun). The sun's light and heat are the result of this same hydrogen conversion to helium. Hydrogen bombs are many more (perhaps a thousand) times more powerful than fission type bombs.
- 1 decade ago
the detonation of a hydrogen bomb is done by an atom bomb wich is based on nuclear fission reaction of U 235 or some other element.
once the atom bomb explodes,it generates a large amt of heat which is sufficient to start thermonuclear FUSION REACTION.
afterwards energy is released from the FUSION reaction in which smaller nuclei combine to form bigger nuclei
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- bwadspLv 51 decade ago
- 1 decade ago
The energy released from the H Ion bein split
- 1 decade ago
- 1 decade ago
it is chain reaction of splitting an Atom.outcome of Eistain equation E=M times square of light's velocitySource(s): none
- 1 decade ago
Try the following sites. They have pretty good info on what you want and more.
- Anonymous1 decade ago
Fire. Hydrogen burns explosively.