The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that coal tar creosote is probably carcinogenic to humans. EPA has determined that coal tar creosote is probably a human carcinogen, and that coal tar pitch is a human carcinogen; it classified coal tar creosote as a carcinogen in the 1992 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Skin cancer and cancer of the scrotum have resulted from long exposure to low levels of these chemical mixtures, especially through direct contact with skin during wood treatment or manufacture of coal tar creosote-treated products, or in coke or natural gas factories. Cancer of the scrotum in chimney sweeps has been associated particularly with prolonged skin exposure to soot and coal tar creosote. Eating food or drinking water contaminated with a high level of creosotes may cause a burning in the mouth and throat, as well as stomach pains. Brief exposure to large amounts of coal tar creosote may result in a rash or severe irritation of the skin, chemical burns of the surfaces of the eye, convulsions, mental confusion, kidney or liver problems, unconsciousness, or even death. Longer exposure to lower levels of coal tar creosote, coal tar, or coal tar pitch by direct contact with skin or by exposure to the vapors from these mixtures can also result in sun sensitivity and cause damage to skin, such as reddening, blistering, or peeling. Longer exposures to the vapors of the creosotes, coal tar, or coal tar pitch can also cause irritation of the respiratory tract.