is nokia a japanese company?
- 2 decades agoFavorite Answer
Nokia is a Finland company, founded in 1865.
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Here is a detailed history of Nokia:
1865: Oy Nokia Ab (ONA) is founded to harvest forest products found in abundance near the small town of Nokia, Finland. The new company proves very innovative, introducing new production methods and vertical integration to the Finnish forest products and paper industries.
1898: Oy Suomen Kumitehdas (OSK) founded to produce rubber products. It performs well but remains unknown outside Finland.
1912: Oy Suomen Kaapelitehdas (OSKa) founded to produce electrical cables.
1945: ONA emerges as a major exporter of paper and wood products following World War II, as the rebuilding of Europe stimulates demand for construction materials.
1960: ONA begins to diversify in an effort to become a regional conglomerate with strong international connections, and the Finnish government encourages the company to diversify by acquiring other domestic firms.
1962: ONA is selected as the Finnish agent of Bull, a French computer manufacturer.
1966: ONA, OSK, and OSKa merge to form Nokia Corp. (NC). The new company reorganizes into four divisions: pulp, paper, and power; Finnish Rubber Works (FRW); Finnish Cable Works (FCW); and Nokia Electronics (NE).
1967: NC establishes a fifth division to develop design and manufacturing capacities in the areas of data processing, industrial automation, and communications systems.
1973: Worldwide rise in petroleum costs force NC to reexamine its contracts with the government of the Soviet Union, which account for 12% of company sales. Much of the company's trade with the Soviets is done on a barter basis, with NC's lumber products and machinery exchanged for petroleum.
1975: Kari Kairamo becomes CEO, and establishes a new corporate policy of consolidating NC's holdings in Scandinavia as a stepping stone to wider trade with the rest of Europe. Kairamo also changes corporate emphasis from forest products to consumer electronics.
1976: Kairamo institutes policies designed to modernize each corporate division while maintaining emphasis on electronics. Under his plan, each division finances its own reorganization, preventing depletion of corporate funds on the capital-intensive heavy industries under NC's control.
1977: NC absorbs Oy Kymamo, which becomes Nokia Plastics, the company's sixth division.
1980: Negotiates numerous original equipment manufacture agreements during the decade, whereby the company produces electronic equipment under other companies' brand names.
1981: Acquires a 51% interest in the Finnish telecommunications company, which is renamed Telenokia.
1982: Designs a digital switching system for the needs of Finnish telephone companies. Acquires control of Mobira, a Finnish mobile phone company.
1984: Acquires an 18.3% interest in Salora, Scandinavia's second-largest manufacturer of televisions, and Luxor, the state-owned Swedish electronics and computer company.
1986: Manufactures mobile phones under the Nokia name, marking the first time that the company produces electronic products carrying its own brand. Acquires Sahkoliikkeiden, Finland's largest wholesaler of electrical products. Annual profits are FM531 million.
1987: Acquires German consumer electronics manufacturer Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG, Swiss cable manufacturer Maillefer, and French manufacturer of consumer electronics, Oceanic. NC is listed on the London stock exchange. Annual profits are FM843 million.
1988: Acquires the data systems division of the Swedish Ericsson Group, making the company the largest information technology company in Scandinavia. Acquires Deeko PLC of Great Britain and Renucci SA of France, and reorganizes its tire producing operations into Nokia Tyres Ltd., a subsidiary company. Divests itself of Metsa-Botnia Oy, a producer of paper pulp. Sells its roll-covering operations.
1988: NC and Moskabel of the Soviet Union sign a joint venture agreement. Under pressure to improve the company's profit margin, Kairamo commits suicide and is succeeded as president by Simo S. Vuorilehto. Negotiates joint ventures to produce mobile phones with Tandy in the U.S. and Matra in France. NC reports yearly profits of FM1.16 billion.
1989: Sells its German circuit board factory, and large portions of its conveyor belt, technical, and flooring operations interests. Reports yearly profits of FM156 million.
1990: Enters into a joint venture with the James River Corp. of the U.S. and the Ferruzzi Group of Italy, whereby the companies merge their European soft-tissue paper operations. Acquires a 51% interest in NKF Holding NV, owner of the Dutch telecommunications and cable manufacturer NFK Kabel, and purchases Suomen Sahkotukku Oy, a Finnish wholesaler of electrical equipment. Creates AMT, a joint venture with the Moscow, Russia, telephone authority.
1991: Purchases Technophone Ltd., a British manufacturer of mobile phones, for FM238 million. NC and Kymmene Corp. conclude a joint venture merging the companies' chemical operations. NC divests itself of Nokia Data. Profits are FM604 million.
1992: Acquires Finlux, a Finnish manufacturer of televisions.
1994: NC is Finland's largest corporation, Europe's sixth-largest manufacturer of electrical cables, and the largest maker of cable machinery and winter tires in the world. The company is also the world's second-largest mobile phone maker, and one Europe's largest manufacturers of television sets.
1995: Lists its tire subsidiary separately.
1996: Aborts its television operations.
1997 June: Secures a $30 million order from Total Access Communications Inc. in Thailand for SYNFONET, its fiber optic transmission product, a network management system, and technical supports services.
1998 June: Wireless rivals Ericsson, Nokia, and Motorola form a new venture that will sell software for smart phones and handheld devices. The partners have created Symbian, a company that will develop wireless technology with messaging, information access, and Internet capabilities.
1999 Dec.: IBM Corporation and Nokia form a global partnership to accelerate the growth of the wireless Internet. The companies will work together to develop enterprise WAP solutions to enable customers to immediately begin extending e-business beyond the PC to a variety of mobile devices.
2000 June: Nokia and RealNetworks Inc. hook up to develop technology that will deliver Internet audio and video content to future mobile devices.
2000 July: Nokia and Whirlpool agree to cooperate in the creation of innovative networked solutions for the home. Together, the two companies will evaluate new business models for bringing innovative products and services to the home products market.
2001: Operating profits grow to $4.8 billion, despite the downturn in the telecommunications industry. Nokia holds a 37% share of the global cell phone market. One reason for the firm's solid performance despite difficult market conditions is the strength of its brand, considered one of the most valuable in the world due to Nokia's successful marketing efforts.
2002: Nokia and Hon Hai Precision Industrial Company Ltd. begin working together to manufacture more than one million cell phones every month to satisfy growing demand in China.
2003: Nokia increases its stake in mobile software developer Symbian Ltd. from 19% to 32%. The firm also acquires software vendor Eizel Technologies for $21 million. To bolster its foothold in China, Nokia apply for permission from the Chinese government to consolidate its four joint ventures there into a single operation and to begin manufacturing CDMA handsets.
2004 March: Psion Ltd. sells its 31% stake in Symbian to Nokia for $251 million. The deal ups Nokia's stake in Symbian to a controlling 63%.
2004 June: Despite the costs associated with developing a variety of cellular phone models, the firm decides to begin offering flip-top phones, which now account for 30% of all new cell phones sold throughout the world.
2004 June: Share prices for Nokia plunge roughly 40% after the firm reveals that it has lost market share to rivals. In particular, the firm's share of the worldwide market for cellular phone handsets declines to 28.9%, compared to 34.6% a year ago.
2004 Nov.: Nokia agrees to spend $200 million to boost its mobile network operations in Henan, China. The firm also announces plans to spend $150 million to construct a handset manufacturing facility in India.
2004 Dec.: By lowering its prices, Nokia boosts its share of the worldwide market for cellular phone handsets to 30.9%.
2004: Profits fall 4% to $4.3 billion, despite a 7% increase in revenues to $39.6 billion.
2005 April: Nokia introduces the N91, a cellular phone handset that contains its own hard drive able to store up to 3,000 songs.
2005 July: Jorma Ollila announces plans to retire next June. Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo is appointed his successor.Source(s): Nokia Corp. Notable Corporate Chronologies. Online Edition. Thomson Gale, 2005. Reproduced in Business and Company Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.:Gale Group. 2006.