Mathematical constructs are generated by the human mind. There is nothing in nature that is "7" for example, except our particular manner of counting a specific number (i.e. 7) of oranges. Yes, if you add 7 oranges and 3 oranges in a single basket, you'll have 10, but nature is not using any math to "calculate" that result, it is simply a fact.

Algebraic constructs, the rules of calculus, analysis, and all other types of equations and formulae were constructed by humans, and may be constructed quite differently by different intelligent species. Indeed, even by different humans, math can take on quite a different look.

There is no "law of the universe" that says "a + b = b + a" which is one of the tenets of our standard high school level algebra. In fact, it becomes quite different using higher level constructs of math that a + b does not always equal b + a. Nature, which is what we discover with our senses, has nothing inherently mathematical about it, and so in this sense there is nothing for us out there to discover.

You may find Godel's Incompleteness Theorem of interest:

"For any consistent formal theory including basic arithmetical truths, it is possible to construct an arithmetical statement that is true but not included in the theory. That is, any consistent theory of a certain expressive strength is incomplete."

Again, mathematics was most certainly invented to help us describe, predict, compute, and otherwise obtain information about the world. But mathematics itself is not inherently embedded anywhere in the world for us to find.

Source(s):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del's_incompleteness_theorem