Pathophysiology: Poison hemlock contains several piperidine alkaloid toxins (namely coniine) that are structurally similar to nicotine. Coniine has direct effects on nicotinic (cholinergic) receptors, both agonist and antagonist. Clinically, initial manifestations include gastritis and CNS stimulation (tremor, ataxia, and seizures). Nicotine activation at autonomic ganglia can cause tachycardia, salivation, mydriasis, and diaphoresis. In severe cases, acetylcholine (nicotinic) receptor antagonism develops. This leads to bradycardia, ascending paralysis, and CNS depression (coma). Death is typically from respiratory failure.
Water hemlock contains cicutoxin, a potent, noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist. Using a rat model, Uwai et al showed that cicutoxin is an antagonist of GABA-mediated chloride channels. Cicutoxin rapidly produces GI symptoms (nausea, emesis, abdominal pain) typically within 60 minutes of ingestion. CNS excitation leads to tremor and seizures, often refractory to therapy. A single bite of the root, which contains the highest concentration of cicutoxin, has been reported to kill an adult.