Aztec philosophy was the school of philosophy developed by the Aztec Empire. The Aztecs had a well developed school of philosophy, perhaps the most developed in the Americas and in many ways comprable to Greek philosophy, even amassing more texts than the ancient Greeks (Mann, 121). Aztec philosophy focused on dualism, monism, and aesthetics, and Aztec philosophers attempted to answer the main Aztec philosophical question of how to gain stability and balance in an ephemeral world.
Aztec philosophy saw the concept of teotl as a fundamental unity that underlies the entire universe. Teotl forms, shapes, and is all things. The concept of teotl bears some resemblance to the Eastern philosophical idea of Tao.
Reflecting dialectical monism, teotl manifests itself as opposing but complementary opposites. While things appear different, they are ultimately the same thing (teotl).
Relation to Aztec religion
Aztec priests had a pantheistic view of religion but the popular Aztec religion maintained polytheism. Priests saw the different gods as aspects of the singular and transcendent unity of teotl but the masses were allowed to practice polytheism without understanding the true, unified nature of the Aztec gods. Some view Hinduism as as similar mix of pantheism and polytheism.
Moral beliefs and aesthetics
Aztec philosophers focused on morality as establishing balance. The world was seen as constantly shifting with the ever-changing teotl. Morality focused on finding the path to living a balanced life which would provide stability in the shifting world.
Aztec philosophy saw the arts as a way to express the true nature of teotl. Art was considered to be good if it in some way brought about a better understanding of teotl. Aztec poetry was closely tied to philosophy and often used to express philosophic concepts.