• ### How are mathematics, statistics, and computing related to philosophy?

Best answer: Mathematics is a development of logic. Logic is a discipline of philosophy. Individual branches of science including to a small extent computer science, and to an even lesser extent statistics, are the occupations of some of the obscure branches of applied philosophy, which is not 'real' philosophy, but the application of... show more
Best answer: Mathematics is a development of logic. Logic is a discipline of philosophy. Individual branches of science including to a small extent computer science, and to an even lesser extent statistics, are the occupations of some of the obscure branches of applied philosophy, which is not 'real' philosophy, but the application of concepts from philosophy to other disciplines. Applied philosophy might be touched on by a philosopher, or by someone wishing to provide a background for their work in science, often introductory science. Philosophy has been plagued by some of the problems native to mathematics through its relation to logical set theory, which is sometimes construed to have implications for metaphysics through the many-worlds theory of David K. Lewis and others. Essentially there is no one-to-one correlation, becasue once you are doing philosophy, you are doing philosophy. But not every philosopher is a scientist, so there are a wide number of variations, mostly hinging on the application of logic and ethics. And ethics is always an applied field outside of philosophy.
12 answers · Philosophy · 3 years ago
• ### In what ways can precision be a barrier to philosophy?

Best answer: In writing The Dimensional Philosopher's Toolkit (different from Baggini and Fosl's The Philosopher's Toolkit), I considered precision (subjects, specifications) to be part of the logical vocabulary. And so, too, was generality (coherence, universalism). The risk with precision is in adopting such a narrow view that the... show more
Best answer: In writing The Dimensional Philosopher's Toolkit (different from Baggini and Fosl's The Philosopher's Toolkit), I considered precision (subjects, specifications) to be part of the logical vocabulary. And so, too, was generality (coherence, universalism). The risk with precision is in adopting such a narrow view that the larger picture is forgotten. Closed off for too long, entire avenues of inquiry might shrivel and die. With generality (coherency, universalism), on the other hand, one is free to be metaphorical and pursue whatever is important. But there is also a risk with generality of having blindness to what one is actually saying, or whether one actually means it. I have observed that often happens in theology. So, I would say that it is a kind of two-edged sword. But you can't really do without either of them. Precision defines the substance or qualities of philosophy, whereas generality defines its nature and importance.
9 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Are there any (or many) extinct philosophies?

Best answer: I can think of four reasons a philosophy might become extinct, and I will give a few examples: (1) It was proven to be unintelligent. For example, some scientists would consider Flat-Earth theorists to be doting on an extinct philosophy. But these people still exist in small amounts, supposedly. Likewise, some early theories like the... show more
Best answer: I can think of four reasons a philosophy might become extinct, and I will give a few examples: (1) It was proven to be unintelligent. For example, some scientists would consider Flat-Earth theorists to be doting on an extinct philosophy. But these people still exist in small amounts, supposedly. Likewise, some early theories like the theory of the Apeiron are largely considered extinct, because new physical and spiritual theories have largely replaced them. However, they are still open to speculation in philosophy. Even flat earth might be possible if there is a God, and he put us under a spell of illusion, or if there are multiple earths, some of them being more real than others. But we know the fact is, the earth is not flat as it is perceived. And that is an important detail that makes the other theory less valid. (2) If it was simply forgotten by history. For example, there may be many intelligent and nuanced philosophies from Ancient Greece, and the time after that (medieval Europe for example), that did not mesh well with the time in which they appeared, and thus, were not remembered by anyone. These philosophies would be extinct, although they shouldn't necessarily be so. Some of these theories may have ceased to exist simply because the materials did not exist to record them, or because the recording materials decomposed, or because the oral tradition is too ancient, and other philosophies took over when the opportunity arose to transmit them. Many details of the African oral philosophies may have been lost as populations migrated into the cities, for example. (3) Another example is philosophies that make weak arguments. These may be philosophies that are known about, but are not widely accepted. One example might be Protagoras' philosophy that there is an argument on any subject. After Hume's Guillotine (the argument that we cannot get an ought from an is), it became impossible to make moral arguments. So there is not an argument on every moral subject. And so, most philosophers would consider Protagoras' philosophy to be extinct, even though many people remain moralists. (4) Some arguments may be too strong to exist, or too obvious. They may be beyond ordinary human potential, too complex, too subtle, or too unreasonable-sounding. Some consider Kant's concept of the Noumenal World to be inaccessible, and thus, easily rejected. However, because Kant is a recent philosopher, some still take his concept seriously. Some even consider it to be central to their Christian beliefs, e.g. because God is an unknown. And, sorry to say, some theories like Nihilism, Pessimism, and Heaven and Hell are alive and well, showing that it is clearly not evolution making the decisions about which philosophy survives...! No impoliteness intended, if you happen to hold Christian beliefs.
4 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Does philosophy evolve?

Best answer: Here is a more formal philosophical answer than the other answerers are offering. New philosophical ideas arise in a similar manner to other ideas in history: through dialectical materialism. What this really means is that controversial ideas go through a period of critique, and if they are not acceptable new theories emerge. At some... show more
13 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago

Best answer: I think for Kant it was in the form of the thing, for Schiller it is about the object's purpose, and for Hegel my guess is that it must exemplify beauty. Sorry I cannot give more of a picture than this.
Best answer: I think for Kant it was in the form of the thing, for Schiller it is about the object's purpose, and for Hegel my guess is that it must exemplify beauty. Sorry I cannot give more of a picture than this.
3 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Why is philosophy important?

Best answer: I'll be bold, and say that the 'reason' or 'purpose' of philosophy amounts to what philosophy has done for history. What has philosophy done for history? It has done Existentialism. It has done Rhetoric. It has done Logic. Philosophy is at the root of most concepts of mathematics and religion. So, philosophy is... show more
Best answer: I'll be bold, and say that the 'reason' or 'purpose' of philosophy amounts to what philosophy has done for history. What has philosophy done for history? It has done Existentialism. It has done Rhetoric. It has done Logic. Philosophy is at the root of most concepts of mathematics and religion. So, philosophy is almost all-important. But what is philosophy missing? Practicality, and sometimes moral fiber. So, it might be fatally flawed. But if you're a skinny white man like me trying to find the meaning of life, philosophy is a great thing, indeed. It leads to things like alchemy, psychology, pure abstraction, symbolism, structuralism, and theology. It can be highly addictive. It's a love of paper, ink, impossibility, paradox, and futurism.
8 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Is it possible to achieve Perfection?

Best answer: For the sake of a strong argument, you may be right. But that doesn't mean that no one thinks they have found perfection. If perfection is impractical, then we can understand not wishing to achieve it. Or if it is temporary, and if the emotional pain is too hard to bear. Past a certain point of suffering and boredom, however, there... show more
10 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### I am a witch and i want to know what books are good for beginners?

Best answer: The answer isn't to hold back, it's to jump in. If it's a child you have in mind, then you might consider having an adult teach them from an adult book. Otherwise, children's books might be appropriate. I have heard all witches are supposed to own 'The Witches Bible'. That might be the book to... show more
Best answer: The answer isn't to hold back, it's to jump in. If it's a child you have in mind, then you might consider having an adult teach them from an adult book. Otherwise, children's books might be appropriate. I have heard all witches are supposed to own 'The Witches Bible'. That might be the book to buy. http://www.amazon.com/Witches-Bible-Comp... I just published two books which are not strictly in the Wicca tradition, but I think they contain real magic. The point being a beginner is not to be disappointed. That's my philosophy. I have not been disappointed with an herbs book by Scott Cunningham, and also with my own spells. One of my books is Worthwhile Magical Things to Do (oriented towards White Magic): http://www.amazon.com/Worthwhile-Magical... The other is The Dimensional Spell-Casting Toolkit (Vol. 19 of the Dimensional Encyclopedia, oriented towards all types of magic, ranging from herbalism and rituals to incantation, enchantment, and defense, to animal attraction, familiars and golems, to destruction and curses): http://www.amazon.com/Dimensional-Spell-... Scott Cunningham's books can also be found on Amazon by doing an appropriate search. I have met at least one real wizard and one real witch. I'm a believer in time-travel, and disappointed with anyone who does not pursue the immortal quest. If you want other books to read, I think Cunningham has a book of spells, and I definitely recommend the herbs book. I'm not an expert on deciding about Wicca books. Some are good with rituals, and some are good with spells. The Book of Runes by Ralph H. Blum may be useful (you probably already own some edition of it). Cunningham's "Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner" is also popular, probably for good reason.
4 answers · Books & Authors · 4 years ago
• ### Best self development books ?

Best answer: 7 Habits for Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change. Almost everyone likes this book. The Five Faces of Genius: Creative Thinking Styles to Succeed at Work. The Artist''s Way by Julia Cameron, also highly rated. This book is full of amazing, inspiring quotations. What Color is Your Parachute: brilliant... show more
Best answer: 7 Habits for Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change. Almost everyone likes this book. The Five Faces of Genius: Creative Thinking Styles to Succeed at Work. The Artist''s Way by Julia Cameron, also highly rated. This book is full of amazing, inspiring quotations. What Color is Your Parachute: brilliant book about how to become employable. I also recommend my Perpetual Motion Genius' Guide series, available on Amazon. The series includes works on early-life development, writing, philosophy, and other subjects (The earlier-mentioned books are not by me). If you want instructions on magic powers and yoga, you could not do much better than the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. (If, on the other hand, you want works about general and technical philosophy practice, I recommend The Philosopher's Toolkit by Baggini and Fosl, and The Dimensional Philosopher's Toolkit, by me. Baggini and Fosl have also released an Ethics Toolkit, which is bound to be full of puzzles).
1 answer · Books & Authors · 4 years ago
• ### Do you believe expression to be one of the fundamental roles of the human form?

Best answer: Anthropology or the study of the human is typically where that stuff goes. It gets thrown in with a lot of other stuff, like 'evolution' and 'learned behavior' and thus also the 'nature vs. nurture' debate. If it interests you, art ('artistic expression') is the fifth dimension of knowledge in my... show more
9 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### 21st century and the famous painters / artists?

Best answer: You might not get any better answers, so I will answer as best I can. I was born in 1982, and from what I've heard during my own lifetime, Picasso was famous during the 20th century, even very early, although the news media was somewhat different back then. Some things were reported on radio, especially political stuff, but also... show more
4 answers · Painting · 4 years ago
• ### Where is time?

Best answer: What is time? Time is a variable that happens to exist in our dimension. In the absolutely real world, there are infinite dimensions of time. Here there is only one. In the immortal world, there is infinite time, but in the temporal world, time is a limited variable. Time is essentially a type of complexity. Other types of complexity... show more
Best answer: What is time? Time is a variable that happens to exist in our dimension. In the absolutely real world, there are infinite dimensions of time. Here there is only one. In the immortal world, there is infinite time, but in the temporal world, time is a limited variable. Time is essentially a type of complexity. Other types of complexity could exist with equal importance to time, but in our limited dimension (I call it dimension 3.5), time happens to be very important. So you could ask: Is time important? It is in our dimension. What is time? A type of complexity, specifically a one-dimensional variable that scales to multiple dimensions. Time is a way of relating between one-dimensional and higher-dimensional forms of physics or metaphysics. Time is not the fourth dimension, because it exists in every dimension. In each dimension there is a version of every prior dimension, and the ultimate higher dimensions manifest as a form of meaning, evolution, or transcendence. Time is both a capacity and a limitation upon various forms of transcendence, which are also forms of motion or physico-mental capacities. Because time is a variable, it is not precisely 'located': instead, it qualifies everything in the universe. It relates with things to the extent that they are real. It performs tests. It is a categorizer. However, infinite time is located everywhere, and one-or-more dimensional time can relate to objects as a variable, typically in terms of the object's 'automatic' versus 'resistive' 'travel' through time. Time as we understand it is a form of travel. And, time is all of change. We overcome time by changing more or less than the current dimensions of time. This involves either being a more permanent form of information, or more real or more perceiving thing than all other things in the local universe. Time travel is the beginning of knowledge of time, whereas the immortal abandons the usefulness of the variable of time. Time, some might say, is transient in more than one way. It is both a bringer of basic knowledge, and a denier of ultimate experience. But who need to know that? Unless you're an advanced mathematician or somebody, time just means 'history'. It just means 'evolution'. It just means changing until there's no more change left to do. In this respect, humans are sadly limited in their capacities. A given life does not always evolve. The potential of time very often is more significant than the lives lived within it. There is a necessity of becoming dimensional in order to relate to the more ultimate significance of time, before the variable of time can be manipulated, and before we can become self-purposed.
23 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Why are people not content being imperfect?

Best answer: Imperfection reminds us of the worst things in life. If it's bad, people think, then it might be worse. People who enjoy imperfection are more perfect than they think!
Best answer: Imperfection reminds us of the worst things in life. If it's bad, people think, then it might be worse. People who enjoy imperfection are more perfect than they think!
9 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### Is man and other beings born with a innate knowledge of sustainability in relation to the world.?

Best answer: There's an artificial balance: not only is there no doubt that some ducks are drowning in oil-slick, but there is also no doubt that being human is currently the best earthly answer for survival. So, if you put two-and-two together, you get the artificial balance: (1) Humanity is really great, and (2) We're not being very nice to... show more
Best answer: There's an artificial balance: not only is there no doubt that some ducks are drowning in oil-slick, but there is also no doubt that being human is currently the best earthly answer for survival. So, if you put two-and-two together, you get the artificial balance: (1) Humanity is really great, and (2) We're not being very nice to other species. I think that is the gist of it. For, there is no doubt that it is EASIER to live as a human being than ever before, in terms of the experiences of each individual human being on average. The larger question of nature is going to be trumped by expensive programs and human interest groups, and the upshot is---just what I told you. Humanity survives until there's a better alternative. And that's the central question, isn't it? But if you're a duck in oil-slick, you're out of luck. Sorry to say, but if there's a higher power, he thinks its evolution. So, time to focus on what it means for individuals to evolve. A life in which everyone is a super-soldier? Or a more meaningful life? A life with nature preserves? Or virtual reality? A lot of answers like these are bound to crop up over the course of the next few hundred years, or perhaps sooner. But a lot of people will just be thinking about the food they eat, and whatever entertainment or work is most important for them in the moment. So, there is an opportunity for significance, but also for some short-sightedness and some of the usual misfortunes. Global warming may be a big deal, but that doesn't mean its too late to reverse the climate within livable conditions. It's kind of like life after the last Ice Age: unforeseen adaptations take place, and ultimately, history seems to be more flexible than we ever expected. Whether we're wearing sweaters and snow pants or staying indoors with a lot of air-conditioning, humans will adapt, and it will be up to the less fortunate to realize that some others have adapted, and to bill themselves as also being members of the community.
7 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### I was wondering about the rights authors have over their published works. Details below.Thanks everyone?

Best answer: Laws differ from country to country. My experience is that authors in Europe get to keep the royalties circulating in their own family. American authors have more trouble. I have read about this, and what I have heard is that copyright expires 80 years after publication, regardless of whether the author is alive or dead. However, I have... show more
7 answers · Books & Authors · 4 years ago
• ### Are there any names that mean "Human" or "Monster"?

Best answer: 'Anthro', 'Ent', and various things related to human powers such as 'Civ', 'Techno', 'Thread', etc. could be interpreted as meaning 'human'. Depending on the plot, you could weave in themes from the story, such as if there is a big thing about matter and physics, then the villain could be... show more
Best answer: 'Anthro', 'Ent', and various things related to human powers such as 'Civ', 'Techno', 'Thread', etc. could be interpreted as meaning 'human'. Depending on the plot, you could weave in themes from the story, such as if there is a big thing about matter and physics, then the villain could be about 'Chaos' or 'Entropy' e.g. human disillusionment, etc. 'Gorgias' could be a reference to Gorgons, which are monsters. And there are many others monsters from myth, such as 'Hydro', 'Cyclopes', 'Mino' or 'Minotaur', 'Drake' for a small dragon. There are also myths from Japan and China and other places in the world. There are 'wights' and 'valkyries' and 'zombies' and many unique names to choose from. Many readers can understand slight-of-hand references like 'Kyr' for Valkyrie etc. otherwise they just don't care very much. But how it sounds may matter a lot, if it's pitch-perfect. Good luck!
4 answers · Books & Authors · 4 years ago
• ### Do you know of any philosophers who taught about the good life and how to be happy?

Best answer: Aristotle argued for the Middle Path between extremes as a way of avoiding difficult choices and hardship resulting from bad decisions. The Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) also argued for the middle path. Epicurus argued for moderate pleasures and avoidance of pain, which was subsequently taken up by the Utilitarians (Bentham and his son... show more
Best answer: Aristotle argued for the Middle Path between extremes as a way of avoiding difficult choices and hardship resulting from bad decisions. The Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) also argued for the middle path. Epicurus argued for moderate pleasures and avoidance of pain, which was subsequently taken up by the Utilitarians (Bentham and his son John Stuart Mill), who argued that morality is about achieving pleasure and avoiding pain. In Mill's view it's about not only pleasure, but qualified pleasure, such as pleasures that can only be achieved by being human or a god. Socrates is also known to have perspectives on a good life, even though he is not known to have left any extant writings. From what we know from his student Plato, the priority for happiness was justice, and living according to the true nature of the soul. Those are the major thinkers about happiness and fulfillment that I know about. There have also been a wide variety of mystics advocating union with God, transcendence, abandonment of desire, and entrance into heaven as a way of solving the problem. But these are not always considered philosophers these days, since their viewpoints are usually not original. Jesus seems to have advocated forgiveness as a way of absolving the sins of the world. It is not always clear that he thought happiness was possible. Possibly he saw it as a gift from God the creator. And he thought it could sometimes be wrong, or at least wrong-minded. Medieval people following Jesus' views concluded that pleasure was largely a sin, and the only virtue came from mystical union with God.
12 answers · Philosophy · 4 years ago
• ### In the US is it illegal to sell something i.e. a painting without a permit?

Best answer: My experience in an artistic city in the U.S. is that selling things in public is illegal, unless you sell to a friend or someone who is already an interested buyer, or unless you have a business permit which costs money. City halls often sell permits for one week to a month, but they're somewhat expensive. However, selling paintings... show more
Best answer: My experience in an artistic city in the U.S. is that selling things in public is illegal, unless you sell to a friend or someone who is already an interested buyer, or unless you have a business permit which costs money. City halls often sell permits for one week to a month, but they're somewhat expensive. However, selling paintings online doesn't require a permit. Also, if you own your own property or rent, there are sometimes rules that allow it. Sometimes you aren't allowed to advertise or attract strangers from the street, but you could have a casual conversation with people you know, and then sell art at your own place. That's the best information I have on the subject. A lot of these rules probably hold across the U.S., probably even fewer restrictions in some less artsy places.
5 answers · Painting · 4 years ago
• ### Would you describe the act of masturbation as impure, or freeing/liberating and natural?

Best answer: Masturbation feels pure to men (at least if they are idealistic and non-religious) whether they use pornography or not, and probably to women just feels meaningless because it is too difficult, or has a completely different complex when it involves vibrators---e.g. the meaninglessness of other people, the god-like qualities of the... show more
Best answer: Masturbation feels pure to men (at least if they are idealistic and non-religious) whether they use pornography or not, and probably to women just feels meaningless because it is too difficult, or has a completely different complex when it involves vibrators---e.g. the meaninglessness of other people, the god-like qualities of the artificial and disembodied, etc. On the other hand, on a spiritual level men ultimately feel guilt, but this usually occurs at the point where some sort of difficulty came up, such as venereal disease or erectile dysfunction. All of this makes the 'universal' nature of such a thing radically difficult to interpret. It appears both to be a part of nature / civilization and to involve some amount of self-sacrifice. If people worship the process of creating children, masturbation seems like a sin or an excess. But if they do not worship every type of child they would have (such as with the wrong woman), then it does not seem sinful. For women there is not the same moral dilemma, because so far as I know it has little to do with the travel of the egg. However, there is no danger of masturbation making anyone infertile, just perhaps too objective to handle a non-objective partner. The result is that there are many dangerous sexual situations, not just physically, but psychologically. And I dare to guess not all of the problem is masturbation. After all, women regularly use spermicides that are mostly having the same effect, although in a more profound, sexual situation. Because of things like spermicide, many men feel justified in masturbating, even if it is a form of self-sacrifice, so long as they don't sacrifice the most important things. And the most important things typically are somewhat selfish, when it comes down to survival and how to have a good day.
13 answers · Other - Social Science · 4 years ago
• ### What are the tools to become a good writer?

Best answer: As of late, you will need a mixture of writing ability and business sense. You will need sufficient means (money, leisure) to spend a significant part of your time writing. This frees you to become a creative person. Some type of motivation, ranging from greed to pleasing children may be important to give your work a secret... show more