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There are several theories of fear. If you're asking how fears come into play, some are out of evolution (such as spiders and snakes, we fear them because they can kill us). Others can be caused by early childhood experiences.
There was an experiment known as Little Albert. He was introduced to a white rat, and after being introduced to the rat a few times, the experimenter banged something loud, scaring Albert, while the rat was around. Due to this, he assosciated the rat with the loud noise, and is afraid of it.
As for parenting styles, there are four types that psychologists have identified: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved. Authoritarian is like a dictator, and unfortunately it can lead to hostility towards the parent. These are also people who "want" their child to have a certain career, such as following in footsteps or living their dream job through their child.
Authoritative is the best style, with a warm and caring parent, though setting boundaries. This usually leads to a friendship between parent and child, and does not create problems.
Permissive is not setting many boundaries, and this is more like friendship than parenting. This can lead to children who think they can do anything without getting in trouble.
Uninvolved is self-explanatory, and this can lead to losing your child. These sort of people just don't care.
Culture can affect a child's development with certain manners, behaviors, etc. By seeing things on TV, they will imitate what they see is reinforced (known as modeling). If they see a peer get reinforced by other peers, they will act the same way. By an early age, about 5, children are already induced into the cultural ways of a society.